MS 43 and MS 163 Temple Oheb Shalom

Posted on December 13th, 2012 by

Once before I posted two related collections together and here I'm going to do it again. ?We have two manuscript collections related to Oheb Shalom congregation. ?Here's a little of its history, our holdings, and some pictures, too.

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Oheb Shalom on Hanover Street after the rebuilding, n.d. 1985.114.1

Temple Oheb Shalom (Baltimore, Md.)

Collection, n.d., 1819-1977

MS 163

?The Jewish Museum of Maryland

ACCESS AND PROVENANCE??

The Temple Oheb Shalom Collection was donated to the Jewish Museum of Maryland by Temple Oheb Shalom in 2004 as accession 2004.97.? The collection had previously been on the premises as loans L1988.11 and L2002.48.? The collection was arranged by Bernie Raynor and Jerry Frankle in 2006 and the finding aid was written by Erin Titter.

Access to the collection is unrestricted and is available to researchers at the Jewish Museum of Maryland.? Researchers must obtain the written permission of the Jewish Museum of Maryland before publishing quotations from materials in the collection.? Papers may be copied in accordance with the library?s usual procedures.

(left) Cantor Alois Kaiser and (right) Rabbi Benjamin Szold, taken at the Oheb Shalom Synagogue in 1868. 1989.79.74

HISTORICAL NOTE

Temple Oheb Shalom was founded in 1853 and held its first services on November 25, 1853 in Osceola Hall at the northeast corner of Gay and Lexington Streets inBaltimore.? In 1858, the congregation purchased the old Fifth Presbyterian Church onSouth Hanover Streetbetween Pratt and Lombard Streets, remodeled the building, and dedicated it as the new synagogue on August 13, 1858.? In these early years of its existence, the congregation was called the Fourth Synagogue, the Hanover Street Synagogue, or the German Congregation.

Salomon Landsberg served as the congregation?s spiritual leader from 1856-1857, but he was not an ordained rabbi.? In 1859, Benjamin Szold became the first ordained rabbi of the congregation and he served in that capacity until 1892.? In 1870, the Hanover Street building underwent reconstruction, during which time the congregation worshipped at the New Assembly Rooms at Lombard and Hanover Streets.

On September 3, 1892, Rabbi William Rosenau preached his first sermon as the new leader of Temple Oheb Shalom.? In June of 1892 a cornerstone was laid for a new temple at the corner of Eutaw PlaceandLanvale Street, which was known as the Eutaw Place Temple.? Designed by architect Joseph Evans Sperry, the temple was formally dedicated on September 8, 1893.? A Temple Center adjacent to the Eutaw Place Temple opened in February 1923.

Rabbi Szold died while on vacation in Berkeley Springs, West Virginiain 1903 and later that year, the congregation celebrated the 50th anniversary of the congregation and the 40th anniversary of Rev. Alois Kaiser?s service as cantor was celebrated in 1906.? A new cantor, Rev. Jacob Schuman was installed in September 1908.

In 1959, ground was broken for a new Templeon Park Heights Avenueon the former estate of Moses S. and Samuel M. Hecht.? The new Temple was dedicated on September 16, 1960 after eight weeks of farewell ceremonies for the Eutaw Place Temple.? The Eutaw Place Temple was sold to the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons.

Rabbi Abraham D. Shaw became an assistant rabbi for the congregation in 1936, and was promoted to Senior Rabbi in 1940.? He served until 1976 when Rabbi Donald Berlin became rabbi.? He served as senior rabbi until 1999.? Rabbi Daniel Feder became the assistant rabbi in 1994 and in 1999, Rabbi Steven M. Fink succeeded Rabbi Berlinas Senior Rabbi and Rabbi Feder left to become rabbi at Congregation Keneseth Israel in Allentown, Pennsylvania and Rabbi Eric B. Stark became the new assistant rabbi.

Temple Oheb Shalom is an active congregation and is still located on Park Heights Avenue.? For more information about the congregation, please see Synagogues, Temples and Congregations of Maryland, 1830-1990 by Earl Pruce as well as his addendum covering the years 1991-2002.

Eutaw Place looking south toward Oheb Shalom, n.d. Courtesy of Dennis B. Myers. 1985.112.1

SCOPE AND CONTENT

The Temple Oheb Shalom Collection contains the records of the Templeas well as the papers of clergy and other members of the congregation.? Records include financial ledgers, marriage certificates, information about several buildings owned and used by the congregation, membership information, board of trustees minutes, the religious school, the Brotherhood and other congregational groups, evidence of interactions with outside organizations, and issues of Temple Topics, the congregations newsletter.

The Collection is divided into the following twenty series:? Series I.? Anniversaries, 1903-1978 ; Series II.? Annual Meetings, 1853-1970 ; Series III.? Board of Trustees, 1867-1971 ; Series IV.? Books, n.d., 1826-1883 ; Series V.? Buildings, n.d., 1890-1974 ; Series VI.? Cemetery, n.d., 1863-1934 ; Series VII.? Clergy, n.d., 1859-1977 ; Series VIII.? Correspondence, n.d., 1870-1971 ; Series IX.? Financial, 1853, 1893-1927, 1960-1961; Series X.? Groups, n.d, 1873-1995 ; Series XI.? History, n.d., 1819, 1895-1974 ; Series XII.? Insurance Appraisals, 1940-1944 ; Series XIII.? Marriages, n.d., 1859-1944 ; Series XIV.? Membership, n.d., 1790-1975 ; Series XV.? Memorials, n.d., 1862-1957 ; Series XVI.? Outside Organizations, n.d., 1871-1973 ; Series XVII.? Religious School, n.d., 1873-1981 ; Series XVIII.? Religious Services, n.d., 1910-1972 ; Series XIX.? Temple Topics, 1928-1966, 1978 ; and Series XX.? Photographs.

Series I.? Anniversaries, 1903-1978 contains programs, scrapbooks, and correspondence related to the 50th, 60th, 75th, 83rd, 85th, 90th, 100th, 116th, 120th and 125th anniversaries of the congregation.? Materials are organized chronologically beginning with the earliest material.

Series II.? Annual Meetings, 1853-1970 contains minutes from early annual meetings, the reports of the congregation?s president, a testimonial to Rabbi Rosenau given during the 1937 annual meeting, and programs and invitations to several meetings.? Materials are organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series III.? Board of Trustees, 1853-1971 contains minutes from board of trustees meetings from 1853-1960, an agenda from a 1971 meeting, a manual for board members, and an undated meeting report.? Series is organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series IV.? Books, n.d., 1826-1883 contains several boxes of prayer books and religious texts, in German and English, including a Sunday School text book compiled by Rabbi Szold in 1873 and the complete, translated works of Flavius Josephus give to the temple in honor of the 85th birthday of Beulah Gutman.? Books are in boxes according to size and are not organized in any specific manner.

Series V.? Buildings, n.d., 1890-1974 contains information about the two buildings used by the congregation:?Eutaw Place Temple and theParkHeightsTemple.? Materials about theEutaw Place temple include several newspaper accounts of the opening of the temple in 1893 from various newspapers, etchings, information about the laying of the cornerstone, rededication programs, documents of sale of the Eutaw Place andLanvale Street properties, and a set of mounted postcards depicting various rooms of the temple.? The materials about the Park Heights Temple include blueprints of the property, construction plans, dedication materials, information about the laying of the cornerstone, and a lawsuit filed against the congregation by the Club Manor apartment building.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.

Snapshot by Menasha Katz of Oheb Shalom at the corner of Eutaw Place and Lanvale. 1987.137.35

Series VI.? Cemetery, n.d., 1863-1934 contains cemetery committee meeting minutes, correspondence and perpetual care certificates, and ledgers with lot information and payments.? The series is organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series VII.? Clergy, n.d., 1859-1977 contains materials about rabbis and cantors who served at Temple Oheb Shalom.? Included are materials by and about Rabbi Rosenau, Rabbi Shaw, and Rabbi Szold as well as Cantor Alois Kaiser.? Folders are organized alphabetically by last name of the clergymen.

Series VIII.? Correspondence, n.d., 1870-1971 contains correspondence organized chronologically.? General, undated correspondence appears first followed in order from the earliest to most recent correspondence.

Series IX.? Financial, 1853, 1893-1927, 1960-1961 contains a 1909 budget, General Fund balance sheets from 1960-1961, receipts from 1901-1903, a copy of an 1893 loan, and reports from the finance committee.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series X.? Groups, n.d., 1873-1995 contains information about the temple brotherhood and sisterhood, the choir committee, long range planning committee, the divine services committee, and the cantors committee among others.? Of particular interest in the choir committee correspondence is evidence of an argument between the choir and the board regarding the choir leadership and in the divine services committee folder is an 1893 appeal to members to refrain from talking during services.? The folders are organized alphabetically by the name of the group involved.

Series XI.? History, n.d., 1819, 1895-1974 contains the articles of incorporation and by-laws as rewritten in 1905 and 1929, speeches and essays about the role of Oheb Shalom during the Civil War and German immigration in the 19th century, congregational histories, a scrapbook of newspaper clippings, and a copy of the Jew Bill debates, 1819.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series XII.? Insurance Appraisals, 1940-1944 contains three appraisals of the Temple buildings.? The 1940 appraisals also contains photographs of the buildings.? Folders are organized chronologically from earliest to latest.

Series XIII.? Marriages, n.d., 1859-1944 contains marriage certificates, a ketubah from the wedding of Sarah Stein and Solomon Hecht, marriage licenses from 1859-1944, a compiled list of marriages performed, and ledgers containing lists of marriages performed by Rabbis Rosenau, Shaw and Szold.? Of particular interest is a folder of wedding invitations collected by the congregation.? The invitations are undated (likely from the late 19th and early 20th centuries), but do contain names of individuals being married as well as their family members.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.? Folders of marriage licenses are organized chronologically, with the earliest licenses appearing first.

Series XIV.? Membership, n.d., 1790-1975 contains information about becoming a member of the congregation and membership lists, but primarily contains information about various members of the congregation.? Included is information about the Blaustein family, the Brunn family, Jonas Friedenwald, Yale Gordon, Adolph Gutman, Sophie Hechinger, Bennard Perlman, Gilbert Sandler, Henry Sonneborn, Isaac Straus, Bertha, Henrietta, Johanna, Sara, and Sophie Szold, and the Van Leer family.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.? Folders about individual members or families are organized under the heading Members, and are alphabetical by last name.

Series XV.? Memorials, n.d., 1862-1957 contains memorial offering booklets, memorial books, a blank resolution form to be filled in by the board upon the death of a member, and a list of funerals officiated by Rabbi Rosenau.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series XVI.? Outside Organizations, n.d., 1871-1973 contains material about other local and national organizations.? Included is information about other congregations such as Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, and Har Sinai, the Jewish Community Center, the National Association of Temple Administrators, the Jewish Congregations of Baltimore, the Council of Jewish Women,HebrewUnionCollege, the Hebrew Ladies? Sewing Society, and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.? Included in this series of note are the handwritten articles of incorporation of the Hebrew Free Burial Society and an 1871 letter asking for all ?Israelites? to meet at Temple Oheb Shalom to discuss the formation of an Orphan Asylum inBaltimore.? Folders are organized alphabetically by the name of the organization.

Confirmation class at Oheb Shalom. Hattie Tannebaum, is seated at right of Rabbi William Rosenau, 1900. Courtesy of Morton T. Blumberg. 1991.48.1

Series XVII.? Religious School, n.d., 1873-1981 contains a record of bar mitzvahs, correspondence, class rosters including the 1891-92 class taught by Henrietta Szold, a catalog of library books at the religious school library, a copy of the 1915 school newspaper, a list of honor roll students, reports to the board of school commissioners, board of commissioners meeting minutes, and invitations and programs to confirmation exercises.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series XVIII.? Religious Services, n.d., 1910-1972 contains bulletins from services, calendars of events, a photocopy of an 1858 article in the Occident protesting the installation of an organ for use during services at theTemple, and a bulletin for a prayer service for peace in 1969 as part of a national anti-war campaign.? Series is organized alphabetically by folder title.

Series XIX.? Temple Topics, 1928-1966, 1978 contains issues of the congregational newsletter Temple Topics.? Issues are organized chronologically beginning with the earliest issues.? It is a complete accounting of issues from 1928-1966 and the year 1978.

Series XX.? Photos contains photographs collected by the congregation.? Photographs will be individually cataloged in the JMM database.

Oheb Shalom Congregation

Collection, n.d., 1865-1986

MS 43

??The Jewish Museum of Maryland

Polaroid of the exterior of Oheb Shalom, c. 1980. Photograph by Paul Schlossberg. 1984.24.40

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ACCESS AND PROVENANCE

The Oheb Shalom Congregation Collection was donated to the Jewish Museum of Maryland in 1984, 1989, 1990, and 1991 as accessions 1984.125, 1989.20, 1989.45, 1990.89, 1990.191, 1991.35, by Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Trupp, Mrs. Stanley Greenebaum, Calman A Levin, Rose Weiss, Janice K. Friedman and in 1988, 1991 and 1992 as accession 1988.216, 1991.118 and 1992.51 found in the collection of the Jewish Museum of Maryland. The collection was processed at an unknown date and a finding aid was written by Sidney Rankin in 2012.

Temple Oheb Shalom Sunday School class, May 19, 1931. Partial list of people in photograph, although none are positively identified: Albert Lowenson, Ros Michaelson, Irving Oberfelder, Dorothy Stephany Otenheimer, Alice Leitz, Joseph Wiesenfeld; Francis Scott Key Monument in background. Courtesy of Joseph Wiesenfeld. 1999.57.1

SCOPE AND CONTENT

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The Oheb Shalom Congregation Collection consists of a small collection of documents primarily related to the early history of the congregation. The collection is divided into two series.? Series I: Early History, 1899-1938 contains articles of incorporation, early correspondence and histories of the congregation.? Series II: Congregation activities, 1865-1986 contains programs, class materials, letters, pew deeds, prayer cards, etc. related to confirmation, the sisterhood, Benjamin Szold, etc.

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MS 55 The Louis E. Shecter Collection

Posted on December 6th, 2012 by

Louis Shecter as a graduate from Baltimore City College, 1918. Courtesy of Louis E. Shecter. 1974.21.4

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Louis E. Shecter (1901-1992)?Collection

n.d., 1921-1985

?MS 55

Jewish Museum of Maryland

?ACCESS AND PROVENANCE

The Louis E. Shecter Collection was found in the collection as MS 55.? Multiple accessions have been identified as materials donated by and related to Louis E. Shecter and probably incorporated into MS 55: 1973.013; 1974.021; 1975.020; 1982.015; 1985.104; and 1985.105.? However, none of the materials in the manuscript collection can be positively identified with these accessions.? Because of this the collection was given the FIC accession number 2012.061. The collection was processed at some unknown date then reprocessed and given a finding aid in June 2012 by Jennifer Vess.

Access to the collection is unrestricted and is available to researchers at the Jewish Museum of Maryland.? Researchers must obtain the written permission of the Jewish Museum of Maryland before publishing quotations from materials in the collection.? Papers may be copied in accordance with the library?s usual procedures.

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

Louis Shecter (1901-1992) was born in Baltimore and graduated from Baltimore City College in 1918.? He began work at the Baltimore Sun then left for the Joseph Katz advertising company.? In 1928 he became the advertising director for the Hecht stores until 1931 when he and his brother-in-law, Jack L. Levin, started their own advertising company.? Shecter also began to invest in real-estate and businesses, ultimately owning several theaters (The Rosalyn, The Rex, The Roxy, and The Times ? now known as the Charles Theater).? Other businesses included the Famous Ballroom and two bowling centers.

Rosalyn M. and Louis E. Shecter on their way to London aboard the R.M.S Queen Mary, 1946. Courtesy of Louis E. Shecter. 1982.15.17

In 1939 Shecter married Rosalyn Margareten (d. 2009).? Rosalyn was born inNew York City and attended first Hunter College then later the Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) for sculpture.? Louis and Rosalyn had three children: Alan, Mark and Alyce.? In 1961 Rosalyn was appointed vice chair of the Maryland Board of Motion Picture Censors.? Rosalyn focused on preventing children from being exposed to adult content in films, and she played a minor role in the implementation of the current movie rating system.

Louis Shecter was involved with a number of political figures and also became a collector and promoter of the arts.? Shecter died on November 9, 1992.? Rosalyn died on November 24, 2009.

SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE

The collection is divided into three series: Series I. Louis E. Shecter, n.d., 1921-1985, Series II. Rosalyn Shecter, n.d. 1931-1984, and Series III. Children and Grandchildren, n.d., 1949-1983.? Series I. is further divided into eight subseries: Subseries A. American Jewish Congress, n.d., 1957-1983, Subseries B. Business, n.d., 1924-1984, Subseries C. Politics, n.d., 1944-1985, Subseries D. Genocide Convention and Civil Right Activities, n.d., 1954-1981, Subseries E. Charitable Contributions, n.d., 1945-1985, Subseries F. Art Collection, Museums and Culture, n.d, 1953-1983, Subseries G. Personal Correspondence, n.d., 1921-1984, and Subseries H. Misc, n.d., 1932-1984

Louis Shecter with Ladybird Johnson, 1962. Courtesy of Louis Shecter. 1975.20.33a

Series I. Louis E. Shecter, n.d., 1921-1985 contains correspondence, programs, clippings, and writings related to Shecter?s business dealings, civil rights activities, charitable contributions, art collecting, and personal life.? The series is divided into eight subseries. Subseries A. American Jewish Congress, n.d., 1957-1983 contains correspondence, press releases, newspaper clippings, meeting minutes and programs related to Shecter?s work with the American Jewish Congress in Baltimore.? Subseries B. Business, n.d., 1924-1984 contains correspondence and clippings related to Shecter?s work with the Joseph Katz advertising firm, the Hecht Company, his own advertising firm, his real-estate ventures, the Advertising club, etc. Subseries C. Politics, n.d., 1944-1985 contains invitations, correspondence, clippings and programs related to Shecter?s interaction with politics and political figures at the local and national level. Subseries D. Genocide Convention and Civil Right Activities, n.d., 1954-1981 contains correspondence, clippings and talks related to Shecter?s work promoting the Genocide Convention and Civil Rights.? Subseries E. Charitable Contributions, n.d., 1945-1985 contains correspondence, clippings, invitations, etc., related to Shecter?s involvement with charitable organization and his own charitable contributions.? Subseries F. Art Collection, Museums and Culture, n.d, 1953-1983, contains correspondence, newspaper clippings, lists, newsletters, magazines and minutes related to Shecter?s art collection activities, his donation of art, and his interactions with museums and other cultural institutions and organizations. Subseries G. Personal Correspondence, n.d., 1921-1984, contains Shecter?s personal correspondence including a collection of letters (photocopies) to and from H.L. Menken.? Subseries H. Misc, n.d., 1932-1984 contains membership materials to the Masonic Lodge and Beth Tfiloh, invitations, play programs, writings, etc.? All of the materials are organized alphabetically within each subseries.

Louis Shecter and Senator Edward Kennedy reviewing a painting of President Kennedy and Governor Tawes at the opening of JFK Highway. Courtesy of Louis E. Shecter. 1975.20.25a

Series II. Rosalyn Shecter, n.d. 1931-1984 contains correspondence, diplomas, booklets, publications, newspaper clippings, scrapbook pages and genealogical material related to Rosalyn?s education, work and family.? A large portion of the collection relates to Rosalyn?s work with the Maryland State Board of Motion Picture Censors.? The folders are organized alphabetically except for the genealogy materials which are placed at the end of the series.

Rosalyn Shecter being sworn in as chairman of the Maryland Board of Motion Picture censors, 1968. 1974.21.18a

Series III. Children and Grandchildren, n.d., 1949-1983 contains correspondence, invitations and writings related to Louis and Rosalyn?s children and grandchildren.? The series is arranged alphabetically.

Rosalyn, Louis, Alan and Mark Shecter, 1950's. Courtesy of Louis E. Shecter. 1974.21.20

RELATED COLLECTIONS

The American Jewish Historical Society and Syracuse University Library both have Louis E. Shecter Manuscript collections.

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Louis Shecter with Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games in Helsinki, Finland, 1952. Courtesy of Louis E. Shecter. 1975.20.1

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The Jewish Legion of World War I

Posted on November 15th, 2012 by

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Post card of the First Jewish battalion of the Jewish Legion, n.d. Courtesy of Hanan Sibel. 1992.154.1
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?After 36 hours continuous journey we arrived in this town [Trudo, Nova Scotia,Canada] and I gladly jumped into a bath tub and after that I feel almost like new born and start my diary on the most adventurous event of my life ? the campaign in Palestine.? Ferdinand Breth, October 12, 1918, pg. 1. [?MS 53, 2000.50.19]

Herman Carliner, seated in Jewish Legion uniform, Palestine, 1918. Courtesy Rita Miller and Elaine Carliner Millstone. 1996.80.5a

I think that most people?s knowledge of World War I is centered on the battlefields of France or maybe the cold Western Front.? But World War I was fought in other places as well, including Israel, then Palestine.

This is a subject I am just beginning to understand, but what I?ve learned this about the fighting in what was then Palestine: Germany and the Ottoman Empire were allies.? The Ottoman Empire at that time controlled a region that includedPalestine.? Germany and Britain both desired control over the Middle East, and Palestine was a key region for that control.? The British established the Jewish Legion to fight the Ottoman Empire (and the Germans) in Palestine.? The battalions formed by the British consisted of Jews from all over the world ? Britain, Palestine, America, Australia, etc.

Legionnaires standing at attention. Courtesy of Paulyne R. Hyman. 1998.35.11

We have very little in the museum related to the Jewish Legion, but we are lucky enough to have a few pictures and the diaries of Ferdinand Breth who joined the Jewish Legion with many others from the US and travelled to Palestine.? The following are pictures of various soldiers in the Jewish Legion and excerpts from Breth?s diaries.? Breth actually reached the Middle East after the armistice went into effect so he and his fellow recruits didn?t see any military action.? But Breth wrote in detail about his comrades (including one Ethiopian Jew), camp life, and the Jewish communities he visited while abroad.

Louis Brandeis and Harry Friedenwald passing between two soldiers. Courtesy of Hanan Sibel. 1992.154.18

??The most interesting persons of the Boston Bunch were 5 Christian Syrians, who joined the Jewish Legion because they want to free their homeland Palestine from the Turks.?? Pg. 14, October 16, 1918. [MS 53, 2009.50.19]

Jewish Legion soldiers in their daily dress at their camp, n.d. Courtesy of Hanan Sibel. 1992.154.4

??As leader we now get a recruiting ?sergeant? Rodman, who in some nondescript uniform was taken by most of us for real sergeant.? He was a Hebrew teacher inBaltimoreand knew Sonneborn.?? Pg. 15 October 16, 1918 [MS 53, 2009.50.19]

Michael Margolis, Jewish Legion, c. 1918. Courtesy of Aaron and Dorothy Margolis. 1994.193.71ab

?We crossed the Suez Canal on a pontoon bridge and then marched about a mile thru the camp, till we finally came to the tents destined for us?.? Next morning we were full of wonder about our new station.? The camp is the biggest we ever saw, as far as the eyes could see the dessert sand is dotted with white tents.? Everywhere we see soldiers of all branches and of all nationalities.? The camp is now used for demobilization and they arrive here by thousands soldiers from Palestine, Mesopotamiaand other places and are sent from here home.? There are here Indian soldiers with big Khaki Turbans, long hair and long beards, Sundanese and other African troops, Australians, Scotch and many other troops.? Also we about hundred Legionnaires, from the 38th Batailon [sic], which saw action in Palestine.? They are mostly Egyptian and Algerian Jews…speaking Arabic and French, but we found also some American Boys among them, which told us the story of Palestine Campaign.?? Pg. 150-151, January 1919 [MS 53, 2009.50.19]

ewish Legionnaires marching along a road lined with people and under suspended American, Israeli, and British flags, n.d. Courtesy of Paulyne R. Hyman. 1998.35.12.3

?At about 3pm we arrived in Rafa, the first station inPalestine.? We were in land of our dreams and many times before I was thinking what a wonderful moment it will be, when our Legion will reach the Palestinian ground.? I expected that our boys will lose their heads in enthusiasm, that we will smile on our knees and kiss the land for which liberation we were willing to sacrifice our lives, but nothing like this happened.? The Russian Jew is not a sentimentalist and the crossing ofPalestineboundary, did not interrupt the quarelling [sic] of our bunch or the poker game of the other.? We even did not sing Hatikwah, and as soon as the train stopped most of us were running to the cantine [sic] to buy cakes or cans of preserved pineapples.? Pg. 159 January 1919 [MS 53, 2009.50.19]

The Palestine Legion, in Haifa on Shabbos, on Shul parade. Man with head down is Colonel Samuels, Simon Sibel's former colonel. Courtesy of Hanan Sibel. 1992.154.2

Soldiers in front of their tents, n.d. Courtesy of Paulyne R. Hyman 1998.35.12.1

?By the summer of 1919 Breth's father was very ill and he asked to leave the service.

?The repatriation papers I wrote about last night, came to-day and I may leave Palestine next week.? It came so suddenly that I hardly can adjust my mind to it.? Leave Palestine and maybe for ever, and still I have accomplished so little.? It appears to me like deserting my post and even when I assure myself that I will come back, it cannot quiet my mind.? I may come back, but so many things may happen.? Pg. 16, August 24, 1919 [MS 53, 2009.50.20]??

Funeral ceremony, n.d. Courtesy of Hanan Sibel. 1992.154.40

Jewish Legion veterans reunion, c. 1950 Identified are Abraham Shapiro, third from left in back row, William Braiterman, fourth from left in back row, and Julius Sussman, third from left in front row. Courtesy of Erich and Thelma Oppenheim. 1994.38.5

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