Posted on March 13th, 2013 by Rachel
A blog post by Dr. Arnold T. Blumberg*
The impact of the Jewish experience on the birth of the comic book superhero genre in this country can be traced back to the heady days of the so-called “Golden Age,” when so many Jewish comics creators labored in what was the publishing equivalent of the “rag trade,” toiling at art tables to create characters from scratch, compose exciting adventures, and providing pages to publishers eager to fill the newsstands with ten-cent pamphlets that would entice kids to buy them month after month. Men like Will Eisner, Joe Simon, Jack Kirby (Jacob Kurtzberg), Jerry Siegel, Joe Shuster, Bob Kane (Kahn), Bill Finger, Jerry Robinson, Stan Lee (Stanley Martin Lieber), and so many others created a world of superheroes that for more than seventy years have spoken to Americans across the nation and fans around the globe.
Superman #14. Cover art by Fred Ray. © 1941 DC Comics. Superman ™ and © DC Comics. All rights Reserved. Used with Permission. From the collection of Jerry Robinson.
The Superman character that for all intents and purposes introduced the world to the concept of the superhero has been perhaps most effectively mined for Jewish content. Conceived by two teenagers from Cleveland, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, and debuted in Action Comics #1 in June, 1938, Superman almost didn’t see the light of day. What Siegel and Shuster really wanted was to break into newspaper comic strips, a world dominated by Gentile creators and virtually closed to Jews. Their strip ideas were repeatedly rejected and their comic strip pitch for Superman was left in an editor’s desk drawer until the editors were searching for one more feature to complete the first issue of Action Comics. Pulling Siegel and Shuster’s work out of the drawer, this time the editors liked what they saw and Superman debuted as a cover story. Superman’s high-flying success turned him almost overnight into a multimedia sensation with radio, film serials, and—yes—a newspaper comic strip, and led to the introduction of countless other heroes, many of whom are little remembered today. Those characters that stood the test of time—Superman himself, Batman, Captain America, and others—have become the blockbuster movie stars of the 21st century.
Photo by Will Kirk.
Scholars interpret Superman as an immigrant, sent from a doomed planet and adopted by human parents in Kansas. Raised in heartland America, this alien with super-human powers assimilates into American culture by adopting an unassuming, rather nebbishy persona complete with suit and glasses, but remains an ex-Kryptonian who feels he must honor and protect his adopted home. Found within Superman’s basic premise is the story of the Jewish immigrants who, feeling alien upon arrival on American shores, looked for ways to “blend in” (note the many comics creators who themselves changed their names for professional or personal reasons) and ways to “give back.” Superman’s origin story has often been interpreted as a Christ allegory—Jor-El sends his one son to Earth to save us all, and in many versions he even “dies for our sins”—but in Siegel and Shuster’s original conception, he is clearly Moses, bundled into a rocket, instead of a basket, and sent off to an uncertain future.
Photo by Will Kirk.
Superman’s story also parallels the Jewish legend of the Golem of Prague. Created to be a protector for the Jews, the Golem was a clay figure who was animated through the Hebrew word for “truth” that was inscribed (often) on his forehead. Siegel and Shuster created their own Golem, and although he did not carry the word “truth” on his forehead, he did dedicate himself to “truth, justice, and the American way” while wearing an inscribed “S” on his chest. Siegel? Shuster? Superman? Savior? Perhaps all of those and more. In a coincidental but intriguing side note, nearly all the major DC Comics logos that ran at the top of every issue’s cover, including those for Action Comics and Superman, were crafted by in-house graphic designer Ira Schnapp, whose family had been stone cutters in the “old country.” Like the craftsmen who might have etched “Truth” into a Golem’s form, Schnapp was continuing the family tradition by inscribing the definitive versions of characters’ names into the covers of comic books.
Photo by Will Kirk.
I’m one of many comic book historians who have pointed out the somewhat perverse but undeniable truth that World War II was a boon to the comic book industry in general and superheroes specifically. At a time when the country was not yet at war, many of these Jewish creators were commenting on the crisis overseas, perhaps nowhere more obviously than in the cover of Captain America Comics #1 from March 1941, which features Cap punching Hitler in the face. By the time America was officially in the war, superheroes were the perfect propaganda conduit for assuring children (and plenty parents as well) that good would triumph over evil. Superheroes were seen battling the Axis, planting victory gardens, promoting the Red Cross and war bonds, and instructing kids about how to collect scrap paper for the war effort.
Wonder Woman #1, Summer 1942. Publisher: DC Comics. Collection of Michigan State University Libraries.
There’s an oft-told story that, for many, sums up the essence of pure creation and dedication that typifies comics’ Golden Age and was immortalized in Michael Chabon’s fictionalized account of the era, The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay (Random House, 2000). After the successful publication of Daredevil Comics #1 (often known as Daredevil Battles Hitler), the publisher had booked time on a printing press —precious during an era of shortages—to produce Daredevil Comics #2. It was Friday, and the comic had to be printed Monday. The Eisner/Iger shop, one of the key production houses providing comics material, gathered everyone they could into a New York City apartment and set them to the task, and then a blizzard hit. For that weekend, everyone worked at the top of their game; poor Bernie Klein drew the short straw and was sent out in the snow to bring back food for the group; some feared he was lost until he came back with raw eggs. Pulling bathroom tiles off the wall to use as hot plates, they set about heating the eggs, kept drawing and writing, and by Monday they had a comic book. While some of this anecdote may be apocryphal, it has passed into comics legend.
Photo by Will Kirk.
Even many years later, characters created during the Silver Age of comic books—such as Marvel’s X-Men, Spider-Man, and the Thing from the Fantastic Four by Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, and Steve Ditko—speak to aspects of the Jewish experience (The Thing was expressly identified as a Jewish character decades after his introduction). Superheroes and Jewish traditions are interwoven throughout comics history.
Photo by Will Kirk.
Comics creators brought their Jewish heritage and traditions to the page, most often unconsciously, and by virtue of who they were and when they lived, but it is important to recognize that their characters spoke (and continue to speak) to universal values. Jew and Gentile, millions upon millions of fans have embraced the hope and joy and freedom that these superheroes represent, and they stand as one of the great, lasting contributions to pop culture by Jewish artists and writers who— only trying to make a living—breathed life into paper and ink.
*DR. ARNOLD T. BLUMBERG is an author, editor, book designer, educator, and comic book historian with decades of experience in the industry. He served as Editor of The Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide for many years, helped to develop some of the labels and historical designations now used widely by collectors to define eras of comic book history, covered the comic book world for numerous print and online publications, curated a pop culture/comic book museum for five years, and teaches a course in Comic Book Literature at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. He is internationally known for his University of Baltimore course, Zombies in Popular Media, co-authored Zombiemania: 80 Movies to Die For, contributed to Triumph of the Walking Dead, Braaaiiinnnsss!: From Academics to Zombies, The Undead and Theology (in which he wrote about the Jewish legend of the Golem), and the Doctor Who: Short Trips series, and writes regularly for IGN.com and AssignmentX.com. He also teaches courses in science fiction and other media, and has launched his own small press publishing company, ATB Publishing (www.atbpublishing.com).
Posted on March 11th, 2013 by Rachel
A blog post by Museum Volunteer Robyn Hughes, MA.
As a docent at the JMM, I not only get to give tours to the public, but I also have the opportunity to work on a wide array of programs and projects. My most recent project was the production of a twin vision book. A twin vision book is a book with braille text, print text and print illustrations. The idea to create this book first entered my mind when I saw the print books in the reading nook in our new exhibit ZAP! POW! BAM! The Superhero: The Golden Age of Comic Books, 1938 – 1950, during Docent training prior to the exhibit opening. I shared my idea with my colleagues and they were as excited about the project as I was! We were motivated to bring to fruition at the JMM the aspiration “That All May Read,” a quote that I had seen years before on the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped’s web page and have always been moved by. If you are curious about the number of potential Museum guests who could benefit from having access to a book in this format, some medical researchers have estimated that at least five million Americans have a severe visual impairment or blindness.
The production of the book was truly a team effort. First, my supervisor Ilene Dackman-Alon, the Director of Education at the JMM, searched for a story in a classic comic book for us to translate. She selected the Madcap Mariner by Walt Disney Comics. Ilene then transcribed the print text into a Word file and emailed it to me. I used braille translation software to translate it and to print it on my braille printer. The translation and printing process is not as laborious as one may think, thanks to braille translation software. It actually only takes five mouse clicks to complete. I proof read the translated text to check for translation errors, but the braille translation software programs are so accurate these days that mistakes in straightforward text documents are uncommon. After the braille text was completed, my mother Norma Service, with assistance from her husband Bill photocopied the print text and illustrations in a large font size, so that the book would be accessible to as many visitors as possible. We then assembled the book.
The most time consuming part of the project for my mother and me was trying to get the braille text to correspond with the print text on each page, because braille is approximately twice the size of print. After much work that included some reformatting of the braille text, we were successful. We had created the first publicly available twin vision book adaptation of a story from a classic comic book in the United States (at least as far as we know)! The original print version of the story is 4 pages long with 487 words; in contrast the twin vision book with the same number of words is 29 pages long.
Now that we had a book, we needed to let the world (or at least our part of it) know about it. That was when the real fun began! I started looking on the major national low vision organizations’ online calendars for programs that would tie-in-with both our book and our exhibit. I was amazed at our good fortune, I saw that the National Federation of the Blind was planning their own celebration of Read Across America Day (a nationwide commemoration of Dr. Seuss’s birthday), which was (at that time) just a week away on March 2nd. I contacted Melissa Riccobono, the President of the National Federation of the Blind of Maryland to invite her to help us at the JMM celebrate the Day. She accepted our invitation and came and read The Madcap Mariner in the Feldman Gallery to much applause. Please come be a part of this continuing Tale of The Twin Vision Book and explore the world of the classic comic book at the JMM! The exhibit will be at the Museum until August 18th, 2013.
Posted on January 9th, 2013 by Rachel
A blog post by Program Manager Rachel Cylus.
It has been one year since I began working at the Jewish Museum of Maryland, and in that year I have learned a lot about… food. Basically if I described my job to most people it would sound like I work in a food museum or some type of community restaurant. We have organized taste tests, food demos, cooking competitions, programs about the history of foods and food traditions – all in all it has been a delicious year.
But just as all good meals must come to an end (generally with some kind of tasty dessert), so must all good exhibits. And now it’s time to switch gears from working in a food museum to working in a Superhero museum. Lucky me!
Step one of working in a Superhero Museum – Read up on superheroes. Ok, maybe I needed some help with this one (nods to Rachel Kassman, and her comic book library).
Step two – Talk to superhero experts. To successfully complete this task, several of us took a field trip to Geppi’s Entertainment Museum (GEM), located just across the inner harbor from the JMM at 301 West Camden Street. GEM was started by Steve Geppi, a local entrepreneur and comic book aficionado. He is also a comic book publisher and distributor. Basically everything you could ever hope to learn about comic books is located within the walls of GEM, not to mention all types of other pop culture memorabilia, and a hall of fame of local Baltimore heroes. (Fun fact: I learned that the flat bottom ice cream cone was invented in Baltimore. See, I am still preoccupied with food facts!) The docent at GEM was kind enough to show us around the museum and put me in touch with the museum’s curator Andy Hershberger who put me in touch with the former curator, Dr. Arnold T. Blumberg.
Dr. Blumberg is – get this – a professor of comic books and zombies (seriously, he teaches courses on these subjects at UMBC and University of Baltimore. Amazing!)
Step three – Contact a real live superhero. It’s not every day that you make a phone call at work and the person on the other line answers, “Hello, Batman speaking.” But that is truly what happened when I phoned Lenny Robinson (oh no, first rule of superheroes has been breached – never discuss the superhero’s real world alter ego). Robinson is a Baltimorean who visits charities, hospitals, and other events around the country as the Caped Crusader himself.
With the JMM’s transformation into the Jewish Museum of All Things Superheroes nearly complete, we invite you to get in on the fun (particularly steps 2 and 3 of becoming a Superhero Museum) In just a few weeks we will open the exhibit ZAP! POW! BAM! The Superhero: The Golden Age of Comic Books, 1938 – 1950, and everyone is invited! We will be holding two opening events. On Saturday, January 26th from 7-9pm, we will have an exclusive members-only preview event of ZAP! POW! BAM! Meet Dr. Blumberg and hear from him all about the history of comic books and how they have informed his life’s work. If you want to attend this event, but you are not yet a member, never fear, Sue Foard our membership coordinator is here to save the day!!! You can contact her at email@example.com or call 410-732-6400 ext. 220.
At the public opening on Sunday, January 27th, the exhibit will be open from 10am – 5pm. From 11am – 1pm you can meet BATMAN (in his Batmobile, weather permitting)! This event is free for members and free for kids in superhero costumes. The event is included in the cost of admission for all other attendees.
We have lots of exciting programs planned for this spring, and we hope to see you here at the JMM to be super with us.