April 10, 2018: A Decade in the Making

Posted on March 9th, 2018 by

Performance Counts: March 2018

This month’s edition of Performance Counts comes to us from Deputy Director Tracie Guy-Decker. Read more posts from Tracie by clicking HERE.

Ten Years in the Making

In 1971, Isaac M. Fein, the founder of the Jewish Historical Society of Maryland (predecessor to the JMM), published a comprehensive history of the Jewish community of Baltimore. The Making of An American Jewish Community: The History of Baltimore Jewry from 1773 to 1920, was originally published by the Jewish Publication Society of America and then re-released by the Jewish Historical Society of Maryland in 1985. It is an excellent book, and one that our Senior Vice President, Dr. Robert Keehn, recommends to friends and family alike.

In 2008, JMM’s then-director Avi Decter and JMM’s then-researcher Deb Weiner started talking about the successor to the Fein book. Deb suggested they bring in their colleague, Eric Goldstein to help research and write, and so began a journey that is scheduled to reach its finish on April 10 at 6:30pm with the official launch of On Middle Ground: A History of the Jews of Baltimore.

Samuel and Albertina Harrison at 1216 McElderry St., c. 1890. JMM 1991.36.1

We have notes in our institutional archives from a conversation the two colleagues had on August 28, 2008. Questions they were asking themselves included: How would they structure it? How could they update and complement the research Fein had done and tell the story into the twenty-first century? How could they include some of Gil Sandler’s important and compelling storytelling work? What distinguishes Baltimore’s story from other American communities?

The questions were intriguing to Museum staff and board, as well as some important patrons. At least seven donors made the book research, writing, and publishing happen, including: the Richard and Rosalee C. Davison Foundation, Willard and Lillian Hackerman, the Whiting-Turner Contracting Company, the Leonard and Helen R. Stulman Charitable Foundation, and the Joseph and Harvey Meyerhoff Family Charitable Funds. Additional financial support for the project was provided by the Southern Jewish Historical Society and the Tam Institute for Jewish Studies at Emory University.

“The Masquerade Ball of the Harmony Circle, New Assemblr Rooms, March 1st 1866.” JMM 1990.44.1

Johns Hopkins University Press (JHUP) is the publisher of the work, per a contract signed between the two entities nearly five years ago. The questions from ten years ago are now answered in the JHUP/JMM publication of five chapters (plus an introduction and an epilogue) across 320 pages of historical storytelling. An additional 46 pages convey 907 footnotes. And because this is a work created by and with the Museum, more than 130 images–curated from our collections or borrowed from colleagues at more than 20 other institutions or private collections–punctuate the story.

Rosalie Silber Abrams (top left) and Governor Marvin Mandel (bottom left) at a signing ceremony for legislation Abrams sponsored. JMM 1983.88.17.1

And what a story it is! Ranging from the eighteenth century until the twenty-first, On Middle Ground presents compelling characters and absorbing dramas. The authors argue that Baltimore, with its multiple modes of in-the-middle-ness (as a port for both products and people, and as an in-between space—geographically and culturally—bordering both north and south), created an environment that made it a microcosm of the broader American (Jewish) story.

At the Museum on April 10, Deb Weiner will give a preview of the story with a book talk entitled Life on the Border: The Role of Place in Shaping the Baltimore Jewish Experience. Gill Sandler will also be there to entertain and enlighten as he is wont to do.

Temple Oheb Shalom groundbreaking, 1959. Pictured are Philip Kaufman, Scott Preterman, Arthur Feldman, Helene Sacherman, Shelby Silver, Marge Hecht, Sammy Fox, Steve Agetstein, Roy Gamse, Louis Salai, and John Katz,JMM 2002.117.11

If you can’t make April 10 (or you want to collect that second signature on your personalized copy!), co-author Eric Goldstein will join us at the Museum on May 9, sharing a different aspect of the book with a talk entitled Myth vs. Reality: The Maryland Jew Bill in Historical Context.

Whether or not you can make it to the official launch event, we hope you’ll come see us soon, and pick up your copy of the book at Esther’s Place!

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Chronology: Maryland and Israel Part 3, 1950 to 2008

Posted on August 30th, 2017 by

Compiled by Avi Y. Decter and Dr. Deborah R. Weiner. Originally published in Generations 2007-2008: Maryland and Israel

 Missed the beginning? Start here.

1950

In an historic exchange, Baltimorean Jacob Blaustein, president of the American Jewish Committee, and Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion agree that “(1) the Jews of the United States, as a community and as individuals, have only one political attachment, namely, to the United States of America; (2) that the Government and people of Israel respect the integrity of Jewish life in the democratic countries and the right of the Jewish communities to develop their indigenous social, economic, and cultural aspirations, in accordance with their own needs and institutions; and (3) that Israel fully accepts the fact that the Jews in the United States do not live ‘in exile,’ and that America is home for them.” The agreement also stipulates that American Jews will not interfere in Israeli politics. The Blaustein-Ben-Gurion agreement is reaffirmed in 1961, 1963 and 1970.

 

1954

Associated Jewish Charities mission to Israel, the note on the back is dated Nov. 4th, 1954 and reads: ”Darlings, This picture was taken in Haifa on Nov. 1st where we were fortunate enough to see a boat land with over 500 immigrants - mostly Morrocans and a few Egyptians. You can imagine the thrill as each one found his family and friends. Wish you could include this part of the world in your trip - it’s really an eye opener and Bob dear, has real human interest. There are 63 different countries represented here, a real melting pot. Now on to the Neger. Best love, M.”

Associated Jewish Charities mission to Israel, the note on the back is dated Nov. 4th, 1954 and reads: ”Darlings, This picture was taken in Haifa on Nov. 1st where we were fortunate enough to see a boat land with over 500 immigrants – mostly Morrocans and a few Egyptians. You can imagine the thrill as each one found his family and friends. Wish you could include this part of the world in your trip – it’s really an eye opener and Bob dear, has real human interest. There are 63 different countries represented here, a real melting pot. Now on to the Neger. Best love, M.” JMM 1995.142.6.1

The Associated sends its first Mission to Israel. To date, hundreds of community leaders and public officials have participated in dozens of Associated Missions to Israel.

 

1958

Novelist and Baltimore native Leon Uris publishes Exodus, a fictionalized account of the establishment of the state of Israel. A publishing sensation, it becomes the best-selling American novel since Gone with the Wind. Its heroic portrayal of the men and women who fought to create the Jewish state has a profound impact on American public opinion, helping to build support for Israel and shaping the popular narrative about Israel’s founding for decades to come.

 

1967

With Israel on the brink of war, around 8,000 people rally at the Pikesville Armory on 4 June to express their solidarity. Speakers included Chizuk Amuno Rabbi Israel Goldman, U.S. Senator Joseph Tydings, and Baltimore Mayor Theodore McKeldin. The Six-Day War breaks out the next day. An Israel Emergency Fund is established in Baltimore within hours after hostilities began, and $3.2 million is pledged during the week.

 

1973

Thousands gather at the Pikesville Armory on 9 October, once again rallying to support Israel during a time of war. The Yom Kippur War also brings forth another outpouring of financial support as the Jewish community mobilizes its fundraising capabilities.

 

Also in the early 1970s, Marylanders become active in the American-Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) under the leadership of Paul Cordish. They work to educate and lobby elected officials in support of Israeli policies, and to involve more members of the Jewish community in championing the Israeli cause. Eventually a local AIPAC Council is formed in Baltimore; its office opens in 2005. The local effort produces such national leaders as current AIPAC Chairman Howard Friedman.

1988

Maryland Governor William Donald Schaefer and Israel’­s Ambassador to the United States, Moshe Arad, sign a Declaration of Cooperation to promote economic development between Maryland and Israeli businesses and research institutions. The following year, Governor Schaefer leads a trade mission to Israel.

 

1992

The Maryland/Israel Development Center is established to promote economic development in Maryland and Israel by fostering trade, investment, and joint ventures. The Center incorporates as a public-private partnership between The Associated: Jewish Community Federation of Baltimore, the Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development, Israel’­s Ministry of Industry and Trade, and the Jewish Agency for Israel.

 

1999

Johns Hopkins University students Sarah Ratzenberger and Libby Garon on a BIrthright Israel trip, winter 2009. Courtesy of Hopkins Hillel.

Johns Hopkins University students Sarah Ratzenberger and Libby Garon on a BIrthright Israel trip, winter 2009. Courtesy of Hopkins Hillel.

Birthright Israel launches its first trips to Israel. The initiative offers free, first-time educational trips for Jewish young adults ages 18 to 26 in order to strengthen participants’ personal Jewish identity and connection to the Jewish people. Maryland organizations sponsoring trips include the Hillels at the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University. In its first decade, more than 7,000 Marylanders participate in Birthright Israel trips.

2003

An antiquities site Ashkelon. JMM 2007.43.98

An antiquities site Ashkelon. JMM 2007.43.98

The Associated launches a “sister city” partnership with the Israeli city of Ashkelon, with the goal of strengthening relations among Jews in Israel and the diaspora. The partnership aims to create ties between the people of Ashkelon and Baltimore; it also develops joint projects to build Jewish identity, foster leadership and volunteerism, improve social services, Jewish education, and health care, and promote economic development. As a result of the partnership, in 2005, Baltimore City establishes a sister city relationship with Ashkelon, focusing on cultural and economic exchange.

2008

To celebrate Israel’s 60th Anniversary, the Jewish Museum of Maryland installs Dateline: Israel – New Photography and Video Art, an exhibition organized by The Jewish Museum in New York. The exhibition is accompanied by public and family programs and a new educational resource kit, Kesher Israel.

~The End~

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Chronology: Maryland and Israel Part 2, 1900 to 1950

Posted on August 28th, 2017 by

Compiled by Avi Y. Decter and Dr. Deborah R. Weiner. Originally published in Generations 2007-2008: Maryland and Israel

 Missed part 1? Start here.

1903

German-speaking Baltimore Jews organize the Theodor Herzl Zionistischer Verein (Zionist Association), the first German-speaking Zionist organization in America. A leading Reform rabbi, William Rosenau, declares: “I believe that one can be a good reform Jew and be a Zionist.” Two of the organization’s founders, Dr. Harry Friedenwald (Aaron’s son) and Henrietta Szold, will play major roles in the history of Zionism, nationally and internationally.

Baltimore Jews also organize Kadima, a vigorous Zionist group that also concerns itself with local Jewish problems, creating a bridge between the Zionist movement and the community as a whole.

 

1904

Harry Friedenwald, with inscription to Louis L. Kaplan. JMM 1996.10.64

Harry Friedenwald, with inscription to Louis L. Kaplan. JMM 1996.10.64

Dr. Harry Friedenwald (b. 1864) of Baltimore is elected the second President of the Federation of American Zionists, serving until 1917 and as honorary President until his death in 1950.

 

1996.010.064 – Photograph of Harry Friedenwald, with inscription to Louis L. Kaplan.

 

1905

Dr. Herman Seidel with a Zionist group believed to be Poalei Zion, c. 1905. JMM 1963.9.1

Dr. Herman Seidel with a Zionist group believed to be Poalei Zion, c. 1905. JMM 1963.9.1

In December, a recent immigrant to Baltimore from Lithuania, Herman Seidel (1884-1969), organizes in Baltimore the first national convention of the Poale Zion (Zionist Workers) organization with 22 delegates in attendance. The Labor Zionist movement supports kibbutzim (cooperative settlements), the labor union Histadrut, and worker-owned businesses in Palestine. Every Friday night, Seidel attracts a crowd to his soapbox on a corner in East Baltimore, where he encourages support for the pioneer working Jews of Palestine.

 

1906

Boris Schatz

Boris Schatz, courtesy of the Schatz Estate.

Sculptor Boris Schatz (1867-1932) founds the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem to create a completely Jewish art blending Jewish motifs, Near Eastern design, and art nouveau forms. Jews traveling to Palestine return with the school’s jewelry, rugs, metalwork, and wood carvings, reminders of the Land of Israel. Bezalel products are exhibited at expositions in Baltimore in 1914 and 1931, and also at local Zionist stores such as Fannie Drazen’s in East Baltimore.

1909

Henrietta Szold takes her first trip to Palestine, where she is appalled by the health conditions of the Jewish and Arab residents. Upon her return, she organizes Zionist study groups and travels around the United States, speaking about Palestine.

 

1912

In New York, Henrietta Szold founds and is elected first President of the Hadassah Chapter of the Daughters of Zion. Two years later, the organization is re-named Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America. Hadassah funds and organizes progressive health and social services in the Land of Israel which eventually grow into the Hadassah Hospital, while Hadassah becomes the largest Jewish membership organization in the United States. A branch of Hadassah is established in Baltimore in 1913.

1915

Louis H. Levin, c. 1915. Photo by Nat Lipsitz, JMM 1987.80.2

Louis H. Levin, c. 1915. Photo by Nat Lipsitz, JMM 1987.80.2

Baltimoreans gain national attention by sending a thousand tons of food to starving Jews in Palestine. Louis H. Levin travels with the ship S.S. Vulcan to Palestine and supervises distribution of the food.

1917

In June, Zionists from around the country gather in Baltimore for a week-long meeting featuring leading Zionist thinkers and speakers. The convention and its distinguished guests inspire mass demonstrations in the City and inspire local Zionist activists and organizations.

Great Britain issues the Balfour Declaration on 2 November, declaring that Britain views “with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.” When Great Britain organizes the Jewish Legion to help free Palestine from the Turks, Dr. Herman Seidel serves as a recruiting officer for the Legion in the Baltimore-Washington area. About 90 young Baltimoreans volunteer to serve. The Jewish Legion becomes the first Jewish “army” in modern times.

 Rabbi Abraham Schwartz (1871-1937). JMM 1976.1.1

Rabbi Abraham Schwartz (1871-1937). JMM 1976.1.1

A branch of the religious Zionist organization Mizrachi is organized in Baltimore by Rabbis Shepsal Schaffer, Avraham N. Schwartz, and Reuben Rivkin. Mizrachi, founded in 1902 as the religious faction of the World Zionist Organization, is based on the idea that Torah should be the guiding force of a Jewish state in Palestine

1918

Dr. Harry Friedenwald is appointed chairman of the Zionist Commission, intended to help realize the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine. The next year, Dr. Friedenwald, Rudolph Sonneborn, and others travel on a medical mission to Palestine.

 

Zionist Society of the Johns Hopkins Unversity, 1924. JMM 1991.104.4

Zionist Society of the Johns Hopkins Unversity, 1924. JMM 1991.104.4

Johns Hopkins University students and faculty organize the Collegiate Zionist Society of Baltimore. The Society holds a weekly study circle and monthly meetings to publicize Zionist ideas on campus and to raise funds for the cause. Professors David Blondheim, Aaron Ember, and Aaron Schaffer serve as faculty leaders and contribute to national college-level Zionist efforts. Jonas Friedenwald (1897-1955) serves as President of the Society during his years at Hopkins and later assists with the development of the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School.

 

1920

Postcard certificate for the purchase of a tree for the Jewish National Fund, Tree Fund, 1919. JMM 1988.99.1

Postcard certificate for the purchase of a tree for the Jewish National Fund, Tree Fund, 1919. JMM 1988.99.1

Baltimore establishes its first Jewish National Fund Committee. The JNF was established in 1901 to purchase land in Palestine for Jewish settlement. By 1904, it had enough land for its first village, Kfar Hittim.

 

1920s

Two campers at Camp Moshava Labor Zionist Camp.Gift of the Beser Family,  JMM 1993.173.62

Two campers at Camp Moshava Labor Zionist Camp. Gift of the Beser Family, JMM 1993.173.62

Zionist youth groups establish summer programs, with outings in Druid Hill Park. In the 1930s, the Labor Zionist Habonim and the Religious Zionist Hashomer Hadati share a Severn River shore property owned by Sigmund Sonneborn. Today, Zionist education remains central to Habonim Camp Moshava near Bel Air, where campers speak Hebrew, practice Labor movement ideology, and enjoy Israeli dancing, theater, and arts.

 

1926

Seven women from the Labor Zionists (Poale Zion) organize a Baltimore chapter of Pioneer Women, the Women’s Labor Zionist Organization of America (today known as NA’AMAT USA). Through the years, the organization supports a variety of projects aimed at improving conditions for women and children in Palestine and, later, Israel. In 1972 the group opens a “Baltimore Day Care Center” in S’derot. Today, many Baltimoreans continue to participate in NA’AMAT USA and its mission to support the women and children of Israel.

1933

Henrietta Szold at AZMU in Jerusalem, c. 1920. JMM 1992.242.7.42a

Henrietta Szold at AZMU in Jerusalem, c. 1920. JMM 1992.242.7.42a

Henrietta Szold, now living in Palestine, organizes and supervises the Youth Aliyah movement to bring young Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany to Palestine. The new organization secures visas, provides transportation, and helps to settle the new arrivals in Jewish agricultural settlements. The movement rescues 11,000 young German Jews from the Nazis.

1942

 Aaron Straus. JMM 1991.178.1

Aaron Straus. JMM 1991.178.1

The American Council for Judaism is founded primarily by Reform Jews to combat Jewish nationalism and oppose the establishment of a Jewish state. Baltimore philanthropist Aaron Straus (1865-1958) is a key financial backer and Rabbi Morris Lazaron (1888-1979) is one of its ideological spokesmen.

1945

On 25 June, Baltimorean Rudolf Sonneborn brings together Jewish industrial leaders in a New York meeting with David Ben-Gurion, then chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive in Palestine. In the 1950s, Sonneborn serves as national chairman of the United Jewish Appeal.

1947

Richard Henig in lower left, passengers on Exodus ship to Palestine, ca. 1945. JMM 1993.50.14

Richard Henig in lower left, passengers on Exodus ship to Palestine, ca. 1945. JMM 1993.50.14

Baltimore Jews purchase the S.S. President Warfield, a Chesapeake Bay steamer, re-fit the ship, and load a cargo of guns and ammunition. The ship sails to France where it embarks 4,530 Holocaust survivors destined for Palestine. The ship, re-named Exodus 1947, is intercepted by the British and its passengers are interned. The international furor that follows makes the Exodus “the ship that launched a State.”

1948

"They shall come home/Mazel Tov to Israel State/Sunday May 16th, 1948" from Ahavas Shalom Synagogue on Poppleton Street

“They shall come home/Mazel Tov to Israel State/Sunday May 16th, 1948” from Ahavas Shalom Synagogue on Poppleton Street. JMM T1989.13.2

The State of Israel is declared on 14 May. On the 19th, Baltimore Jews rally in support of the new state outside of Beth Tfiloh Synagogue. Speakers include Baltimore Mayor Thomas D’Alesandro, Jr., who declares that “America must rally to the support of the new Jewish state, morally and in every way. As Americans we can do no less.” A second rally is organized at the Fifth Regiment Armory on 3 June, drawing 6,000 people at which actor Murray Slatkin reads a poem by Baltimorean Karl Shapiro: “When I think of the battle for Zion / I hear the drop of chains . . .”

Continue to Part III: Maryland and Israel, 1950 to 2008

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