Friedenwald and France: A Connection I Was Not Expecting

Posted on June 25th, 2015 by

 

My work as an exhibitions intern centers around an upcoming exhibit called Beyond Chicken Soup: Jews and Medicine in America. However, I am also preparing to spend nine months studying abroad in Toulouse, France, beginning in September of this year. I’ve been studying French since middle school, so this has been a longstanding interest of mine. This internship is keeping me busy so that I am not constantly worrying about this big change I’ll be encountering come September. But there have already been a few times this summer when a project has reminded me of my upcoming travels to France.

I’ve come across a collection of images that create a connection between France and the Jews & Medicine exhibit. The Friedenwald family was a sort of medical dynasty in Baltimore, with multiple family members succeeding in the medical field. It just so happens that they are featured in the Jews & Medicine exhibit, but there are also images in the collection with France as the subject.

JMM 1984.023.196

JMM 1984.023.196

This is a postcard of a statue of Edward Jenner, the pioneer of the smallpox vaccine and often called the father of immunology. He was an English physician, but the statue is in Boulogne Sur Mer, France. This image connected my projects on medical history here at JMM to France, reminding me of what is to come. These seem like random connections, but to me they are much more. They link passions to my present and future experiences, allowing me to enjoy my work here and get excited for the Fall at the same time.

JMM 1984.023.1421

JMM 1984.023.1421

This is just a simple photograph of the Eiffel Tower in 1931, but it is also in the Friedenwald collection. Imagine that you have two passions, but at this point in your life they have remained somewhat separate. And then something happens and you are able to experience the two interests at the same time. This is how I feel. My interests in museums and France can certainly be linked, but I do not often experience their connection unless I am reading a newspaper article or am actually in a French museum. But here they are linked; here I am able to think about them together.

JMM 1985.090.031

JMM 1985.090.031

This image is from a different collection, but it highlights an interest as well. It is a photograph of servicemen and servicewomen along with civilians sitting at rows of tables for a Passover seder in a synagogue in Reims, France, in March 1945. This is personally interesting not only because I’ll be traveling in France, but also because I am Jewish. I’m excited for the opportunity to learn about Jewish culture in France, and hopefully I will be able to celebrate Jewish holidays while in France just like the seder in this photo.

Before the summer began, I knew I’d be working on the Jews & Medicine exhibit, but I did not know that a collection used for the exhibit would also connect to my study abroad plans. This has allowed me to recognize both passions, instead of pushing one aside while working on the other.
SophiaA blog post by Exhibitions Intern Sophia Brocenos. To read more posts by interns click HERE.

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Researching a Family “Dynasty” of Jewish Doctors in Baltimore

Posted on July 2nd, 2014 by

As a summer 2014 Exhibitions Research intern at the Jewish Museum of Maryland, I am helping develop the upcoming exhibition Jews, Health, and Healing.  The 2015 exhibition will explore how medicine shaped both the ways Jews are viewed by others and how they view themselves.  This intersection of culture and science has provided some fascinating ways of looking at the construction of identity and empowerment in the Jewish community.

A lot of my research has focused on the Friedenwald family “dynasty” of doctors.  Three generations of Friedenwalds practiced ophthalmology in Baltimore.   Using JMM’s archive collection I have looked at the Friedenwald manuscript collection, which includes correspondences, speeches, and diaries.

Some of the many boxes containing the Friedenwald collection.

Some of the many boxes containing the Friedenwald collection.

Our exhibit will pay special attention to Dr. Harry Friedenwald (1864—1950).  Harry was interested in the history of medicine, particularly Jewish contributions to the field.  This research led to the publication of his book Jews and Medicine: Essays in 1944.  The exhibition will feature a recreation of Harry’s study.

A photograph of Dr. Harry Friedenwald.

A photograph of Dr. Harry Friedenwald.

One of the most interesting things I have found in the Friedenwald manuscript collection is a letter from Harry to his son Jonas (another ophthalmologist) describing medical school quotas for Jewish students.  The July 21, 1922 letter describes a meeting that Harry organized with fellow doctors to review Jewish admissions to John Hopkins Medical school.  In the early twentieth century there were quotas to limit the number of Jewish medical students.  Harry wrote of the “inquisition” into the religious adherence of applicants.  This was conducted by asking for statements from each person’s mother.  Such policies were used to determine if an applicant was Jewish.  Harry hoped to end the quotas.

Harry’s July 21, 1922 letter to Jonas describing quotas at Hopkins.  One of the most difficult aspects of my research has been deciphering Harry’s handwriting!

Harry’s July 21, 1922 letter to Jonas describing quotas at Hopkins. One of the most difficult aspects of my research has been deciphering Harry’s handwriting!

Hopefully, this letter can be used in the Jews, Health, and Healing exhibition to illustrate the history of quotas on Jewish students in medical schools, as well as the broader story of discrimination in medicine.

Sarah MooreA blog post by Exhibition Research Intern Sarah Moore. To read more posts by and about interns, click Here.

Posted in jewish museum of maryland