Posted on April 15th, 2016 by Rachel
Starting May 1st!
From May 1 to July 10, 2016, our Historic Jonestown neighbor, the Carroll Mansion will be transformed into a showcase for some of the most innovative manufacturers and craftsmen in Baltimore and across the nation. The Mansion has been designated the “All American House” by the MADE: In America organization. To celebrate, the city invited other historic sites to participate in presenting “Baltimore’s American Treasures.” We couldn’t resist recognizing our own Lloyd Street Synagogue as the “All American Synagogue.”
Built in 1845, the Lloyd Street Synagogue is the third oldest Jewish house of worship still standing in the United States. The building was designed by Robert Cary Long Jr., a prominent architect of churches during that time. Nearly every component of the original building along with the 1860 renovation and addition were the result of American craft and manufacturers.
For several months a great team of interns and staff have been scouring through records and photos related to the material culture of the building and its contents. By “material culture” we mean the physical evidence of a culture; and the interpretation of objects and the social context in which they were made and employed.
Article on re-dedication of the Lloyd Street Synagogue, 1905
Our research included Baltimore City Directories from 1843-1845; newspapers, congregational minutes, Maryland Historical Society archives, Baltimore Hebrew Congregation Archives, and the JMM’s own thorough research files, etc. The building has had such an extensive history, serving first as a traditional synagogue founded by German immigrants, and transformed later into a congregation that embraced reform traditions. The building was later sold to a Lithuanian Catholic Church and years later sold again to immigrants from Eastern Europe that transformed the building into a thriving center for Jewish tradition in East Baltimore. Each of the congregations used local manufacturers and craftsmen to build and design many of the elements featured in the buildings like the Holy Ark, the organ, and the pews.
Bell illustration by Jonathon Scott Fuqua
We’ve come up with many fresh insights, but found ourselves still struggling with a few unanswered questions. Where did the original torah scroll come from, what happened to the church’s bell, and how did we get conflicting stories of how the current chandeliers were acquired? We decided that the best way to resolve these mysteries was to “crowdsource” the clues. And that has led to the idea of putting together – “The Book, Bell and Candle Mystery” experience, a tour of the Lloyd Street Synagogue with an interactive twist. Part of the Book, Bell and Candle Mystery, will be to share with you the new stories and clues we’ve uncovered about the ritual objects used in the building. But part will also be to get your input on unanswered questions that we still have pertaining to the objects, so we can crack the mysteries.
Posted on January 25th, 2016 by Rachel
As I write this blog, the weather reports are calling for a major blizzard to hit the Baltimore/Washington corridor. The idea of snowstorm is kind of nice- thinking about it happening over the weekend-not really having to be anywhere except home with family, a fire, and lots of good food and drink. However, my mind wanders back to two weeks ago, over Winter Break, enjoying 80 degree days in Hilton Head and Charleston, South Carolina.
The purpose of the trip to the south was to relax, ride bikes and visit Number #2 – Kalal Kadosh Bet Elohim (KKBE). Why did do I care about Kalal Kadosh Bet Elohim. Part of the visitor’s experience at the Jewish Museum of Maryland is to take a tour of the Lloyd Street Synagogue. We tell our visitors that the Lloyd Street Synagogue (LSS) is the third oldest synagogue in the country still standing in its original spot. Touro Synagogue in Newport Rhode Island is Number #1 – built in 1759 and is the oldest existing synagogue building in the United States. Kalal Kadosh Bet Elohim is Number #2 and we as the owners of the Lloyd Street Synagogue here at the JMM are Number #3!
Kalal Kadosh Bet Elohim
The Jewish community of Charleston can be traced back to 1695. Jews were attracted to the civil and religious liberties of South Carolina, and by 1749, these early pioneers organized the congregation, Kalal Kadosh Bet Elohim (Holy Congregation House of God). Similar to the early Baltimore Jewish community, the congregation worshipped in people’s homes until 1794, they dedicated a synagogue described then as the largest in the United States, “spacious and elegant.” The building was destroyed in the great fire of Charleston in 1838, and the new building was constructed in 1840 on the same Hasell Street site. The building is one of the country’s finest examples of Greek Revival architecture. The Kalal Kadosh Bet Elohim sanctuary is the second oldest existing synagogue building in the United States and the oldest in continuous use. It was designated a national landmark in 1980.
I was curious to as the similarities and differences between KKBE and the LSS. The first thing that really struck me was the presence of an established Jewish community so early in the our nation’s history. KKBE was established prior to the Revolutionary War- so it was very interesting to learn about the early Jewish Americans who settled in the US prior to the war. KKBE has a letter on display from President George Washington dating from 1790 extending his congratulations to the congregation. In thinking about Baltimore’s early Jewish community-the Jewish community is really not established until 1830, more than 50 years after the Revolutionary War.
The actual building of KKBE is very similar to the LSS in that both buildings are built in Greek Revival architectural style. The KKBE has six columns when compared to the LSS’s four columns. The columns in Charleston also appear to be considerably taller than the LSS too. Both buildings have very large doors for entranceways in the center of the buildings. The Hebrew prayer and English translation of the Shma are on the outside of the synagogue in Charleston. Both synagogue building have boot scrapers located outside the door. My favorite detail of the “lego bricks” underneath the portico of the LSS can also be seen at KKBE.
The“lego bricks” of KKBE.
We walked inside the sanctuary, and the space is very beautiful and in ways similar to the LSS. The ark is very impressive and is made of Santo Domingo mahogany. The local tradition in the South is to keep the doors of the Ark open. The Torah scrolls are enclosed behind glass inside the wooden frame.
The organ is in the back of the congregation and was installed in 1840 introducing instrumental music into its worship service. Since then KKBE has been connected with religious reform and the congregation was one of the founding members of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, making it one of the earliest reform congregations in the country. The organ is placed -very much in the way that I imagined the organ to have been installed by the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation in 1870’s inside the LSS. in the back of the sanctuary on the balcony level.
One of my favorite things at KKBE was a beautiful mural that they had displayed in the social hall that depicts the “Patriots of Beth Elohim”. The figure on the horse represents the young Revolutionary patriot and legislator Francis Salvador who was killed and scalped by Tory-led Indians. He was one of more than 20 Beth Elohim congregants who fought in the American Revolution, symbolized by the standing figure holding a Bible who represents Abraham Alexander, a Revolutionary officer and religious leader of Bet Elohim between 1764 and 1784. The soldier seated with the broken sword and bowed head represents some 180 Jewish South Carolinians who served in the Civil War. The tablet with the rampant lions and flames represent the brave Maccabees who fought for religious freedom in the second century BCE. The soldier and the flag on the left represent KKBE members who served in subsequent wars.
“Patriots of Beth Elohim”
I am so happy to place a checkmark on my bucket list – I have been curious to see KKBE, especially after so many visitors to the JMM have shared their own observations and stories about the rich history of the Jewish community in Charleston. I enjoyed making the connections between the two historic buildings and I look forward to doing more research over the next few months as we try and showcase the Lloyd Street Synagogue as, “The American Synagogue.” More details to follow! Stay warm this weekend!
A blog post by Education Director Ilene Dackman-Alon. To read more posts by Ilene click HERE.
Posted on November 30th, 2015 by Rachel
November 15th was perhaps our busiest day yet in my six months at the Museum. It was exciting and exhilarating, but also at times hectic. This particular day also gives a good idea of what it can be like to be the Visitor Services Coordinator at the Jewish Museum of MD.
The day began bright and early with the great great grandson of Rabbi Avaham Schwartz leading morning services at Lloyd Street Synagogue. For those who do not know, the renowned Rabbi Schwartz led Shomrei Mishmereth Ha Kodesh beginning in 1908 and remained its leader for the next thirty years. It was so exciting to meet the descendants of Rabbi Schwartz and to see the synagogue active again and filled with the sounds of prayer. The service helped me picture how the space might have been used a hundred years ago as an orthodox congregation.
The LSS in action
A half an hour after the Museum opened to the public, a fourth grade class from Columbia Congregation arrived and they received a tour of the Synagogue and Voices of Lombard Street exhibit. It was refreshing to hear young voices in the Museum and to see them excited about learning about Baltimore’s Jewish heritage. Just as the school group was leaving, another group arrived, this time from Hadassah. They came specifically to see the Paul Simon exhibit.
We then started to get busy with walk-ins for a lecture by Richard Goldstein at 1pm titled “Paul Simon and the Birth of Folk Rock.” I was busy assisting our fabulous front desk volunteers process admission payments while also keeping an eye on the shop. During the lecture, Richard Goldstein focused on Paul Simon’s early career and how his sense of pop music played a crucial role in the transition from folk to rock.
Listening to Richard Goldstein
Just as the lecture was finishing up, descendants of suffragettes including a descendant of Sadie Crockin and Sara Bard Field began arriving for a meeting where they had time to share information about their ancestors and receive a tour of our exhibits.
To wrap up the day, I then joined our Education Director, Ilene Dackman’s, on her inaugural Sounds of the Synagogue tour. It was wonderful to hear clips from a Hebrew prayer service, organ music, a sermon by Rabbi Illoway supporting slavery and recreated conversations from Shomrei Mishmeres. I look forward to hopefully giving the tour in the coming weeks.
In total, we had about 75 visitors come through the Museum plus as additional 125 in groups and rentals. Just when I thought we could not be beat, the next Sunday we had more than 160 visitors and another well attended lecture. I am optimistic that we can maintain this momentum throughout the Paul Simon exhibit and beyond.
A blog post by Graham Humphrey, Visitor Services Coordinator. To read more posts by Graham click HERE.