Posted on November 30th, 2015 by Rachel
November 15th was perhaps our busiest day yet in my six months at the Museum. It was exciting and exhilarating, but also at times hectic. This particular day also gives a good idea of what it can be like to be the Visitor Services Coordinator at the Jewish Museum of MD.
The day began bright and early with the great great grandson of Rabbi Avaham Schwartz leading morning services at Lloyd Street Synagogue. For those who do not know, the renowned Rabbi Schwartz led Shomrei Mishmereth Ha Kodesh beginning in 1908 and remained its leader for the next thirty years. It was so exciting to meet the descendants of Rabbi Schwartz and to see the synagogue active again and filled with the sounds of prayer. The service helped me picture how the space might have been used a hundred years ago as an orthodox congregation.
The LSS in action
A half an hour after the Museum opened to the public, a fourth grade class from Columbia Congregation arrived and they received a tour of the Synagogue and Voices of Lombard Street exhibit. It was refreshing to hear young voices in the Museum and to see them excited about learning about Baltimore’s Jewish heritage. Just as the school group was leaving, another group arrived, this time from Hadassah. They came specifically to see the Paul Simon exhibit.
We then started to get busy with walk-ins for a lecture by Richard Goldstein at 1pm titled “Paul Simon and the Birth of Folk Rock.” I was busy assisting our fabulous front desk volunteers process admission payments while also keeping an eye on the shop. During the lecture, Richard Goldstein focused on Paul Simon’s early career and how his sense of pop music played a crucial role in the transition from folk to rock.
Listening to Richard Goldstein
Just as the lecture was finishing up, descendants of suffragettes including a descendant of Sadie Crockin and Sara Bard Field began arriving for a meeting where they had time to share information about their ancestors and receive a tour of our exhibits.
To wrap up the day, I then joined our Education Director, Ilene Dackman’s, on her inaugural Sounds of the Synagogue tour. It was wonderful to hear clips from a Hebrew prayer service, organ music, a sermon by Rabbi Illoway supporting slavery and recreated conversations from Shomrei Mishmeres. I look forward to hopefully giving the tour in the coming weeks.
In total, we had about 75 visitors come through the Museum plus as additional 125 in groups and rentals. Just when I thought we could not be beat, the next Sunday we had more than 160 visitors and another well attended lecture. I am optimistic that we can maintain this momentum throughout the Paul Simon exhibit and beyond.
A blog post by Graham Humphrey, Visitor Services Coordinator. To read more posts by Graham click HERE.
Posted on December 3rd, 2014 by Rachel
Earlier this fall I had the opportunity to speak to the brotherhood of Baltimore Hebrew Congregation about the life of Mendes Cohen and the origins of Jewish Baltimore. In preparation for the lecture, I thought it was incumbent on me to try to answer the question: “was there a connection between the Cohens and the community that built the Lloyd Street Synagogue (the original site of BHC)?”
I had the benefit of the research of Dr. Eric Goldstein, the Emory University scholar, who has been studying early Baltimore history on our behalf. Dr. Goldstein had pointed out that the early Jewish settlement in Baltimore was highly transient. A majority of Jews arriving between 1780 and 1820 stayed for just a few years, making it a tough environment for the establishment of permanent Jewish institutions. There was a Jewish cemetery by 1797, but no regular minyan or congregation. Baltimore was a frontier of Jewish world.
The Cohens were an exception to the pattern of transience. Arriving in Baltimore from Richmond in 1808, they prospered in the lottery and banking business. Like their close friends, the Ettings, the Cohens followed Sephardic traditions. By contrast, new Baltimoreans after 1820 were almost entirely Germans practicing Ashkenazic rites.
Different sources give different accounts of when the first weekly minyans were held in Baltimore, some cited 1827, just a year after the passage of the Maryland Jew Bill. Others claim that the practice of minyans in people’s homes began following the High Holidays in 1829. Everyone seems to agree that this gathering called itself Nidche Yisrael (the “scattered of Israel”) and sought a formal charter as Maryland’s first Jewish congregation in 1830.
This is where my online research began. Several sources, including the 1976 official history of the BHC, put the first minyan in the home of Zalma Rehine. The Jewish Virtual Library stated that Rehine was a successful Richmond merchant (and a founding member of the Richmond Light Infantry) who moved to Baltimore in 1829. The short article also pointed out that Rehine was the uncle of Isaac Leeser.
Now I may never have heard of Rehine, but Leeser was another story. One of the most prominent Jewish spiritual leaders of pre-rabbinic America. Leeser, technically the “cantor” of Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, is known today for having introduced the practice of weekly sermons and for having made the first English translation of the Torah in the United States. Leeser was present at the opening of the Lloyd Street Synagogue in 1845.
It turns out that Leeser and his uncle carried on an active correspondence in the 1830’s. That correspondence is now archived as part of the 2100 letters in the Gershwind-Bennett Isaac Leeser Digital Library of the University of Pennsylvania:
Image courtesy of the Leeser Library.
http://leeser.library.upenn.edu/ilproject.php. And that’s where I thought I found my Rosetta Stone!
Here was one letter that connected the “founder” of BHC with the Cohens. Moreover, it suggested that the relationship was so close that Dr. Joshua Cohen (Mendes’ brother) was among the trusted few who actually previewed Leeser’s sermons. The story about chasing after the home robbers was just icing on the cake.
As so often happens, further research burst my bubble. In trying to gather more detail on the relationships I ran across an article in the November 1976 issue of the American Jewish Archives. The article by Ira Rosenswaike was entitled “The Founding of Baltimore’s First Jewish Congregation: Fact or Fiction?”. Rosenswaike explores in some detail the Rehine story, tracing its origins to an early 20th century lecture by Henrietta Szold. Szold reportedly told her audience that a respected community elder had once recollected that an early minyan was held at the home of Zalma Rehine on Holliday Street. Szold noted “this may possibly have been the beginning of Nidche Israel”. Later accounts simply dropped the “may possibly” caution and said with certainty that the minyans began at Rehine’s home. After noting the low likelihood that a Sephardi just arrived from Richmond would start an Ashkenazi Jewish minyan in Baltimore, Rosenswaike moves to some fairly solid census evidence that points to Rehine still residing in Richmond in 1830…at least a year after the regular minyan started meeting in Baltimore.
Although this nearly 40 year old article disproved my “Rosetta Stone”, I still remain hopeful that we’ll find a link between the Cohens and the Lloyd Street Synagogue. I invite you to join me in this quest – the search is at least half the fun.
A blog post by Executive Director Marvin Pinkert. To read more posts from Marvin click HERE.
Posted on June 26th, 2014 by Rachel
As an Exhibition and Research Intern at the Jewish Museum of Maryland, it’s my responsibility to describe and dissect the unique connection between the Jewish community and medicine for the upcoming Jews, Health, and Healing exhibit. Every day, I research topics on Jewish identity, conceptions of health, and the changing medical landscape. However, my education in Jewish History begins far before I enter the JMM. My morning walk from Patterson Park to Jonestown is an immediate reminder of Baltimore’s changing ethnic communities and the remnants of a recent past.
Southeast Baltimore and was once home to a thriving Jewish community. This should not surprise our blog readers, as the JMM and corned beef row are located just east of downtown. However, to the casual passer-by, the area’s Jewish presence is not immediate. Jewish History is only found by those who look. One day, as I was walking down East Baltimore Street, I noticed something quite unusual on a Spanish-speaking Roman Catholic Church—Hebrew.
A Hebrew inscription hidden in plain sight.
On the facade of Iglesia de Dios, was a prominent Hebrew inscription, and the date 1899. Stepping back, I looked for more Jewish symbolism hidden amongst the Christian iconography. Sure enough, above the stained glass cross, were the tablets of the Ten Commandments. I could not find the earliest congregation associated with this synagogue; however, with a little research, I discovered this beautiful cream brick building at the corner of Baltimore and Chester may have been the home of former Adath Israel Congregation. This Orthodox congregation was founded in 1914 and amalgamated with Congregation Emanuel in 1920. This community worshiped at this location from 1920-1948, until it merged with Beth Isaac to form Beth Isaac-Adath Israel Congregation. The community is still thriving, just in a new location in Northwest Baltimore.
Iglesia de Dios on E. Baltimore Street is an excellent example of a re-purposed religious space.
Re-appropriating sacred places is certainly not a new concept to our readers or the JMM. The Lloyd Street Synagogue was once used by the Lithuanian Catholic community before they raised enough money to build their own house of worship. Though I am sure it is hard to leave a place that was once your home every Saturday, it must have reassured former congregants that their synagogue was still used for praise and reflection.
The Lloyd Street Synagogue took on multiple faith communities in its lifetime.
Unfortunately, not all former synagogues find other communities. Just of the corner of E. Baltimore and S. Caroline, I walked past a razed former synagogue. Yet, despite the graffiti and draped blue tarpaulins, I could see the beauty the structure once had. There is no name, just an inscription of a psalm and the date 1925. The closest congregation I found near this site was Agudas Achim Anshe Chernigov Nusarch Ari Congregation, an Orthodox community located at 132 South Carolina Street from 1913-1950.
Though it’s near demolition, one can still appreciate the structure’s subtle beauty.
Although I have just scratched the surface of Baltimore’s past congregations and Jewish communities, I realize I am so fortunate to work in a place that keeps these memories alive. If you have any more information on these structures, please let the JMM know – email firstname.lastname@example.org!
This blog post was written by Exhibitions Research Intern Mandy Benter. For more information on Baltimore’s many synagogues, please see Earl Pruce’s Synagogues, Temples, and Congregations of Maryland, 1830-1990 or visit the website: http://www.kilduffs.com/Synagogues.html. To read more posts by and about JMM interns, click here.