MS 26 Chizuk Amuno Congregation Collections

Posted on September 20th, 2012 by

The JMM is very lucky to have collections of various sizes related to all four of the Jewish congregations that used the two historic synagogues that make up our museum – Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, Shomrei Mishmeres, Chizuk Amuno, and B’nai Israel.  This finding aid for Chizuk Amuno will be the first of the four that I post.  Chizuk Amuno has its own museum, The Goldsmith Museum of Chizuk Amuno Congregation.  You can visit their website to learn more about the museum and read the curator's blog.

Chizuk Amuno Congregation Collection


MS 26

Now B'nai Israel, this building on Lloyd Street was the first synagogue constructed by Chizuk Amuno congregation in 1876. 1987.137.24


The Chizuk Amuno Congregation Collection is comprised of two accessions.  Chizuk Amuno congregation donated materials as accession 1985.064.  The rest of the materials were found in the Jewish Museum of Maryland in 2004 and assigned the accession number 2004.068.  The collection was processed by Erin Titter in 2004.

Access to the collection is unrestricted and is available to researchers at the Jewish Museum of Maryland.  Researchers must obtain the written permission of the Jewish Museum of Maryland before publishing quotations from materials in the collection.  Papers may be copied in accordance with the library’s usual procedures.


Congregation Chizuk Amuno was founded in 1871, when a group of congregants broke away from Baltimore Hebrew Congregation due to a dispute over rituals of orthodoxy.  Originally focused on Orthodoxy, the congregation eventually became influential in the Conservative movement and helping to establish the Jewish Theological Seminary and the United Synagogue of America.

The congregation built their first synagogue in 1876 on the corner of Lloyd and Lombard Streets.  Chizuk Amuno’s first rabbi was Rev. Henry W. Schneeberger, the first American-born ordained rabbi, who remained with the congregation for forty years.  In 1886 the women of the congregation founded the Ladies’ Chizuk Amuno Auxiliary Association of Baltimore City to help advance the welfare of the congregation.  That same year Rev. Schneeberger and Aaron Friedenwald were invited toNew Yorkto help establish the Jewish Theological Seminary.  In 1895 the congregation moved to a new building at Mosher and McCulloh Streets after selling theirLloyd Streetbuilding to B’Nai Israel Congregation.

Following Rev. Schneeberger’s death, Chizuk Amuno hired Rabbi Adolph Coblenz in 1920 and he served the congregation until 1948.  The congregation moved once again in 1922, this time to Eutaw place and shortly after that the Ladies’ Auxiliary changed its name to the Chizuk Amuno Sisterhood.  Over the next several years various other groups emerged including: a Junior Congregation, a Young People’s League, and the Chizuk Amuno Brotherhood.

In the late 1920’s the congregation began to introduce new reforms to the procedures of worship, including more prayers in English, and introducing a confirmation service for girls.  The congregation also debated the issue of mixed seating during Rabbi Coblenz’s tenure, finally voting in favor of family pews in 1947.  The decision upset many of the congregants and drew condemnation from the Va’ad Harabonim (Council of Orthodox Rabbis).  In 1948 the board of Chizuk Amuno unanimously decided to change the congregation’s designation from Orthodox to Conservative.

The second (McCulloh and Mosher streets) and third (Eutaw Place and Chauncy Street) locations of Chizuk Amuno Congregation. 1987.137.63 and 1987.137.66

Chizuk Amuno hired Rabbi Israel Goldman in 1948 (in response to Rabbi Coblenz’s ailing health) and he continued as their spiritual leader until 1976.  Rabbi Goldman established the congregation’s first Adult Jewish Institute, Layman’s Weekend Retreat and Interfaith Services.  He also introduced a Bat Mitzvah service in the early 1950s, which allowed girls a more active role in the synagogue, a practice that had been introduced by the Reconstructionist movement in the 1920s, but had not been widely accepted by the Conservative movement.  In 1971 Rabbi Goldman proposed two items to the board regarding the involvement of women in service – to allow women to sit on the bimah on Friday night, and to allow women to be called to the Torah on Simchat Torah morning.  The board passed both proposals.

In 1958 Chizuk Amuno organized a branch of the United Synagogue Youth (USY), and throughout the 1960s and 1970s the congregation remained active in social issues such as civil rights, raising bond money forIsrael, discussions about feminism, and other social actions.

Hymen Saye, Dr. Leonard Wallenstein, and Harold Hammer laying the cornerstone at Chizuk Amuno, 1957. Courtesy of Hymen Saye. 1991.7.2

Due to financial difficulties, the Chizuk Amuno Congregation sold the building atEutaw Placein 1975.  Following Rabbi Goldman’s retirement in 1976, Chizuk Amuno hired Rabbi Maurice Corson.  The next year, the members of the congregation approved a measure that would allow women full ritual equality in services.  And in 1979, when Rabbi Corson’s contract was up, the congregation hired Rabbi Eliot Marrus for a period of ten months, upon which time the congregation hired Rabbi Joel Zaiman.  Rabbi Zaiman established a Solomon Schechter Day School in Baltimore, today called Krieger Schecter Day School (KSDS).

The Ritual Committee continued to petition for other changes to services. In 1992, the congregation adopted the triennial cycle of reading the Torah, and in 1995 introduced an alternative minyan completely run by laymen – both adults and children.  In 2004, after Rabbi Zaiman’s retirement, the congregation hired Rabbi Ronald Shulman.

Sweatshirt given by Sandee Lever to kids that attended camp. c. 1980s. Courtesy of Barry and Sandee Lever. 2002.111.1

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 The Chizuk Amuno Congregation Collection consists of constitutions for the congregation and Ladies Auxiliary, pew documents, legal documents, correspondence and meeting minutes.  Meeting minutes from 1959 through 1969 make up the bulk of the collection.  The collection is organized chronologically with undated materials at the front.


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MS 205 Leo Kanner Papers on Refugee Medical Personnel

Posted on September 6th, 2012 by

It’s been awhile since we sent out a finding aid post.  We’re picking up with one of our more recent collections, which deals with Dr. Leo Kanner’s work in finding employment for refugees from Nazi Germany who had medical training (mostly doctors).  One of the things that I like about this collection is how it connects us to another Baltimore institution.  It’s not unusual for multiple museums or archives to have related materials.  People and even organizations are often part of multiple groups and communities.  Leo Kanner was a member of the Baltimore Jewish community, so having papers here at the JMM makes sense.  He also worked at Johns Hopkins Medical School and so they too have some of his papers.  After you’ve read through our finding aid, click on the link to The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives to check out another one.

 The Leo Kanner (1894-1981) Papers

on Refugee Medical Personnel

1938-1958 (Bulk 1938-1944)

 MS 205

 Jewish Museum of Maryland

Leo Kanner, c. 1955. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. http:///


The Leo Kanner Papers on Refugee Medical Personnel were donated to the Jewish Museum of Maryland by Baltimore Hebrew University in 2006 as accession 2006.27. The collection was processed by Jennifer Vess in 2012.

Access to the collection is unrestricted and available to researchers at the Jewish Museum of Maryland. Researchers must obtain written permission of the Jewish Museum of Maryland before publishing quotations from materials in the collection. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library’s usual practices
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Leo Kanner was born in Klekotow, Austria on June 13, 1894.  After serving in the Austrian army during World War I, Kanner entered the University of Berlin and earned his medical degree in 1921.  In 1924 he immigrated to theUnited States to work at the Yankton State Hospital in Yankton, South Dakota.  In 1928 Dr. Adolph Meyer, the founder of the School of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Medical School, invited Kanner to join the staff.  At Johns Hopkins Kanner established the first child psychology clinic in the United States in 1930.  Kanner became well known for his work in child psychology and his studies of autism.

Kanner married June Lewin in 1921 and they had a son, Albert Kanner who became a doctor.  Kanner died in 1981 in Sykesville, Maryland.


The Leo Kanner Papers on Refugee Medical Personnel contain correspondence related to the employment of German refugee doctors before, during and after World War II.  The correspondence concerns the immigration, certification, and employment of medical personnel (mostly doctors).  Kanner corresponded with government officials, potential employers, the National Committee for Resettlement of Foreign Physicians, the doctors themselves, etc.  Some of the letters, particularly those written by the refugee medical personnel, are in German.  Mini biographies for many of the individuals concerned are written on stationary from The Johns Hopkins Hospital Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children.  The letters are organized alphabetically by the last name of the medical personnel.

Collections at other institutions:

“Leo Kanner Collection,” The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of The Johns HopkinsMedical Institutions. http:///


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MS 147 Hendler’s Creamery Collection

Posted on July 5th, 2012 by

Hendler's Creamery celebration of the ice cream centential, 1951. 1998.47.35.2

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Starting today the JMM is going to be all ice cream all the time…well maybe not all the time, but we are celebrating the 100th anniversary of Hendler’s Creamery with no less than three programs.  Though not in business anymore, many Baltimoreans recall Hendler’s innumerable flavors with fondness.  The old factory still stands on Baltimore Street within sight of the Lloyd Street Synagogue, and I have spotted vintage Hendler’s signs in restaurants around Baltimore.

Hendler's sign from our collection. 1987.102.1

So to celebrate Hendler’s Creamery we’re going to be dishing out a lot of ice cream.

Tonight come out to our first Late Night at Lloyd Street for our extended museum hours and ice cream making.

Then enjoy:

Hendler’s Creamery Centennial Ice Cream Social

Wednesday, July 11th 1:30 – 3pm

Hendler’s Creamery is turning 100!  In honor of the country’s first fully automated ice cream factory, the JMM invites you to an ice cream social – Hendler’s style. Take a guided tour of our current exhibit, Chosen Food.  Then make your own ice cream and enjoy eating it in the JMM’s Rose-Sagalnick board room – once the office of L. Manuel Hendler, president of Hendler’s.

For transporation from the Myerberg Center to the JMM, contact Adrienne Blumbergat or call 410-358-6856.

Mack Sennett girls promoting Hendler's Ice Cream, 1919. 1996.148.7

And finally:


Celebrate the delicious treats of summer with an afternoon ice cream social for the whole family. Discover the history of Hendler’s Creamery, the Baltimore-based ice cream factory, while learning how to make your own (and eat the results!)

Sunday, July 22, 2012

12 – 4pm

$10 per family (for JMM members)

$15 per family (for non-members)

Hendler Creamery Co. billboard, 1923. 1998.47.7.18

Aside from sampling ice cream, you’ll also get to see a little bit about Hendler’s Creamery based on the collections here at the JMM.  What does the JMM have about this business?  Quite a lot actually.

 Hendler Collection

n.d., 1905-1985

 MS 147

 The Jewish Museum of Maryland

Access and Provenance 

The Hendler Collection material was donated to the Jewish Museum of Maryland by Mr.& Mrs. Samuel Boltansky in 1996 as accession 1996.152, and by an anonymous donor in 1998 as accession 1998.47.  The collection was processed in May 2005 by Myrna Siegel.

Access to the collection is unrestricted and is available to researchers at the JewishMuseumofMaryland.  Researchers must obtain the written permission of the Jewish Museum of Maryland before publishing quotations from materials in the collection.  Papers may be copied in accordance with the library’s usual procedures.

(from left to right) Reuben Sachs, Bluma Sachs, Belle Sachs Hendler, L. Manuel Hendler (boy on horse), Isaac Hendler (man on horse), Bernard (Ben) Hendler (small boy on horse), and four workmen on the street with dairy wagon in front of the Hendler dairy on Bank Street, n.d. 2004.107.1

Historical Note

The Hendler Creamery Company began the business of manufacturing ice cream in 1905 under the name Miller & Hendler.  The business was a partnership between Louis Miller and L. Manuel Hendler and was located in the basement of Miller’s residence at Gough and Eden Streets inBaltimore.  Subsequently, the business was moved to a building onEden StreetnearBaltimore Streetand later toLloyd Street. The partnership was dissolved in February 1907 with Hendler purchasing Miller’s interest in the business.

Manuel Hendler continued running the business until 1912 when he organized and incorporated “The Hendler Creamery Company.”  The corporation purchased and enlarged Mr. Hendler’s ice cream business.   Shortly thereafter he purchased the former power house of the old Baltimore City Passenger Railway Company at Baltimore and East Streets.  The new corporation set about equipping the building with the latest ice-cream manufacturing equipment.

Over the years, several machines were developed and patented in the new plant – the Hendler Scraper Grinder, a mechanism for keeping ice cream freezer scrapers sharp; the Hendler Brick Expeller and Slab Perforation which used compressed air to remove ice-cream bricks from a mold or slab; and the Hendler Fruit Hopper which allowed fruit or chocolate to be added to the ice-cream after the mix was frozen.

In 1926 the company was re-incorporated as the Hendler Creamery Company, Inc.  In 1929, the Hendler Creamery Company was one of seven companies purchased by the Borden Company.  L. Manuel Hendler and later, his son, Albert Hendler, became executives with the Borden Company.

Baltimore played a significant role in the ice cream industry, as it was the site of the founding of the first wholesale ice cream plant in 1851 by Mr. Jacob Fussell.  To commemorate the centennial of that event, there was a large celebration inBaltimorein 1951 in which the Hendler Creamery Company and L. Manuel Hendler, chairman of the Ice Cream Industry’s National Centennial Committee, played a prominent role.

Hendlers Creamery Company ice cream advertisement truck. 1998.47.16.1

Scope and Content

The Hendler Collection is comprised of early records of the growth and development of the Hendler Ice Cream Company and records of its purchase by the Borden Company and its continuation as a division of that company.  There are also records relating to the development of the ice cream industry and of the Ice Cream Centennial held inBaltimorein 1951 to celebrate the centennial of the founding of the wholesale ice cream industry.  The final part of the Collection is comprised of records of the Hendler Family.

The collection is divided into four series: Series I.  Hendler Creamery History, n.d., 1906-1975; Series II.  Ice Cream Industry, n.d., 1905-1951; Series III. Hendler Family, n.d., 1918-1985; Series IV.  Photographs.

Science at Hendler's Creamery. 1998.47.23.10

Series I. Hendler Creamery History, n.d., 1906-1975.  The early history of the Hendler Creamery and its activities in theBaltimore ice cream industry are reasonably well documented.  Of particular interest are, an early agreement of ice cream manufacturers to hire a lobbyist to lobby against the state setting a standard for butter fat content in ice cream, catalogs of ice cream equipment, information about improved equipment developed in the Hendler factory, and agreements with distributors and employees.   Also included is information about litigation against the Hendler Company regarding its use of the trademark phrase “The Velvet Kind” for its ice cream.  There are also copies of the regulations issued by the government in 1917 regarding rationing of commodities such as sugar; and the effect of that action on the ice cream industry.

Additionally, there is, what appears to be, a complete collection of copies of “The Dipper,” a pamphlet apparently distributed to retail ice cream outlets by the Sharpless- Hendler Ice Cream Company inMarylandand nearby states which provided tips on serving ice cream.

Subsequent to the purchase of the Hendler Creamery Company by the Borden Company there was protracted litigation regarding the tax treatment of the assumption of the Hendler Creamery Company’s bonded indebtedness by the Borden Company.  The litigation concluded with an opinion by the United States Supreme Court in the Government’s favor. In 1939, a bill was adopted in the United States Congress to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision. This series includes documentation related to this legal action.

This series also includes handwritten and typed copies of an 1830 book on making ice cream.

Color illustration of an ice cream add. 1998.47.4.99

Series II.  Ice Cream Industry, n.d., 1905-1951 deals primarily with the “Ice Cream Centennial” held inBaltimore in 1951.  In addition to that material, of particular interest is a 1934 efficiency analysis of the Horn Ice Cream Co. plant inWilmington,Delaware, and a 1905 edition of “The Ice Cream Trade Journal.”

Series III. Hendler Family, n.d., 1918-1985 concerns the Hendler Family.  There is information about the military career of Albert Hendler, the philanthropic activities of both L. Manuel Hendler and Albert Hendler, and the artistic achievements of Winifred Hendler, the wife of Albert Hendler.
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Probably the wedding of Florence Hendler and Bernard Trupp. 1998.47.4.46


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