Posted on August 1st, 2014 by Rachel
Here in Baltimore no one has any doubt what war we are commemorating. As summer slips into fall one celebration after another will remind us of the events two hundred years ago that gave us our anthem, our pride and our continued independence. As most of you know, JMM is a part of these festivities, honoring our own favorite Ft. McHenry defender, Mendes Cohen.
However, in much of the world the war being remembered this year is a century later. On July 28, 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Empire declares war on Serbia, the first in a series of domino triggers that will take the world into its first global maelstrom. Within a month of the outbreak, futurist H.G. Wells had already published an article declaring that this would be “The War that Will End War”(it’s ok, we also don’t have time travel yet…or a Martian invasion).
The war would be twice tragic for the Jewish people. First in the loss of life of soldiers drawn to patriotic duty at the early stages of the conflict and second in the inflammation of prejudice as pundits and politicians throughout Europe looked for a scapegoat for their ill-fortune in the fight.
When I was at the Jewish Museum of London this spring, I had a chance to see the exhibit “For King and Country?: The Jewish Experience of the First World War”. As the “?” in the title implies there were a lot of ambiguities in the Jewish response to the conflict. After all, many English Jews of the period were recent refugees of lands controlled by Russia and they did not necessarily favor a victory for the Czar, even if he was allied with Great Britain. Moreover, reflecting the relative size of Jewish populations, more than twice the number of Jews fought for the Central Powers (Germany and Austria) as for the UK and France. In our collection at JMM we have several medals acquired by Jewish soldiers in the service of the German army, carried with them when they were forced to escape on the eve of WWII.
Cross-shaped WWI medal earned by Hugo Bessinger, 2011.4.1
In fact, quickly browsing our collection, it becomes obvious that Baltimore Jews played important roles in the war. Even before the doughboys went to Europe, the British Royal Fusiliers had begun recruiting American volunteers. In particular they sought out Jewish young men who wanted to be sent to the front to face the Ottoman Empire in Palestine.
This cap pin, belonging to Simon Soibel, still bears the initials RF, even though the Royal Fusiliers units, the 39th and 40th battalions, were already referred to as the “Jewish Legion.” 1992.154.057
We have just one WWI uniform in our collection, but it unites two prominent Baltimore families. This coat belonged to Lester Levy, hat maker and civic leader. Levy, who had ambitions to fight in France, had been turned down by the Army for his poor eyesight. Although he eventually got a waiver from the US Attorney General’s office, he was assigned to ordnance and never actually went overseas. And the other prominent Baltimore family? Well, the coat was manufactured by Henry Sonneborn & Co.
The collection also contains quite a few photos from the war effort.
three Red Cross nurses, named Levin, Fuxman and Ribakow, 1990.44.2
As Jennifer Vess wrote in this blog several years ago, the role of women in WWI including not only the nurses but other participants in the combat support effort is particularly well documented in our holdings.
Members of the Jewish Welfare Board in Paris, France; Rose Lutzky, 3rd from right, 1993.173.12
Barbara Tuchman, author of the most famous treatise on WWI, The Guns of August, once wrote “Without books, history is silent, literature dumb, science crippled, thought and speculation at a standstill.”* I would add just one thought to her cogent analysis – “without records and artifacts there are no books.”
*Bulletin of the Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 34, #2, 1980 (pp. 16-32)
A blog post by JMM Executive Director Marvin Pinkert. To read more posts from Marvin click HERE.
Posted on May 16th, 2014 by Rachel
In the past few months you have read quite a bit about our current and upcoming exhibits: Project Mah Jongg, the Electrified Pickle, The A-Mazing Mendes Cohen and Jews, Health and Healing. We also are preparing for some wonderful events including the 8th Annual Herbert H. and Irma B. Risch program this Sunday, featuring Rabbi Marvin Tokayer and our June 1 Annual Meeting with Dr. Len Saxe.
Yet even as we busily engage in the business of creating, funding and presenting these exciting current projects, we still keep one eye focused on the road ahead. You will recall that in the fall of 2012 the Board’s ad hoc “Futures Committee” produced a new vision document for the Jewish Museum of Maryland. The vision reinforced our focus on some of the attributes that make a museum successful, the so-called “four Ds”: destination, documentation, discourse and discovery. This vision has guided us in much of what’s been accomplished in the last eighteen months – the doubling of our public hours, the dramatic growth in our attendance, the strengthened relationship with The Associated, our reaccreditation by the American Alliance of Museums and even the painful decisions that have led us to a balanced budget in FY ’14.
This summer we will enter into a second phase of institutional planning. A new ad hoc “Planning Committee” will be formed with the goal of diving into the next level of the question “What is the Jewish Museum of Maryland?”. The concept is to build on the work from 2012. For example, we have made the commitment to focus on becoming a destination – now we’ll ask the question, “what are the distinguishing features of that destination?”. How are we similar or different from other Jewish museums? from other Baltimore museums? How do we make the most of our unique assets? This stage of planning will be critical as we look ahead to the way we develop our core environment, the historic synagogues and our permanent or signature exhibit.
Simultaneously with this search for “who we are?”, we are launching a second planning process this summer that seeks to answer the question “how do we fit in?”. This neighborhood vision/plan is being conducted in partnership with The Associated and in conjunction with the Jonestown Planning Council. As an anchor institution of historic Jonestown, JMM is a key stakeholder in the future development of our community. The success of the museum is ultimately dependent on what is built around us, not just on what we build. JMM has contracted with the firm of Mahan Rykiel to serve as our consultant for a planning process that will attempt to understand the needs and interests of current residents and businesses, the downtown Jewish community, and the potential museum audience to craft a compelling vision of what this area might become. Mahan Rykiel will also work with JMM, The Associated and the community to give some thought to the “branding” of Jonestown and its identity as a great place to live, work, play and visit.
Both planning processes are open to your thoughts. We will speak to many people over the next few months, but you don’t have to wait for us to call, you can hit the “reply” button to share your ideas.
This month’s Performance Counts was written by Executive Director Marvin Pinkert. To read more posts by Marvin, click here. To read past issues of Performance Counts, click here.
Posted on May 14th, 2014 by Rachel
Over the Passover holiday I traveled to England, meeting up with my wife, who took a vacation from her dissertation research in Turkey. I am normally quite reticent to share tales of my journeys, probably due to being subjected to one-too-many travelogues from my myriad aunts and uncles. But Rachel has persuaded me that a few of my observations/adventures might be of more general interest.
1. One Site, Many Dimensions
My favorite site on the whole trip was Hampton Court Palace. It is the home that King Henry VIII took off the hands of Cardinal Wolsey after he sent him to the Tower. It continued to be “improved” by English monarchs up through the mid-1700s.
Anne Boleyn has a fight with her mother for the entertainment of 21st century guests.
The custodians of this site showed tremendous imagination in interpretation. They created separate tours for different time periods and though Henry VIII may be somewhat better known than George II, they managed to find attributes (like chocolate making) that evened the field. They broke common museum labeling conventions, often pinning labels to tapestries or draping them on tables rather than pasting them on foam core. It made the experience much more organic. They also managed to use a wide variety of techniques simultaneously, including living history performances, audio guides and high-tech slide presentations. I thought that the combination of techniques, great history to work with and truly beautiful paintings and gardens made this a historic site with very wide appeal… proving that sometimes More is More (and I don’t just mean Sir Thomas).
A truly impressive trump l’oeil from Hampton Court Palace.
On the long bus ride out to the Palace we passed by a field with the targets set up for what appeared to be a professional archery tournament. Wish I had taken a picture, especially after we passed by the scoreboard which identified the teams as London Welsh vs. Nottingham!! Did I really lose my chance to meet Robin Hood?
2. Like No Other Night
When we decided that we’d meet over Passover, I thought I would try to find an interesting Second Night Seder. I e-mailed Michael Leventhal, who runs the annual Gefiltefest in London, to ask for a recommendation. He connected me to a group called the Carlebach Minyan which was holding its seder at a private home in the North London borough of Finchley. Much of the ceremony was reminiscent of seders I’ve had here in Maryland or Illinois (with the exception of a Sephardic custom of lashing your neighbors with scallions during the singing of Dayenu). But the dinner had an exceptional theme – “Eat Your Way Through the Plagues”. The dinner had ten courses each course took its inspiration from the plague. For course one, for example, each guest was given a plastic syringe, a thimble of tomato juice and a thimble of vodka or water – and it was our task to “turn the clear liquid of the Nile into blood”. Course five, beasts, was brisket and potatoes but the potatoes had been dried to form a rampaging hippo as seen in this photo. When we got to course eight, the host came in to proudly inform us that locusts were kosher and that this course was exactly what it sounded like. Here I drew the line – I am not a grasshopper eater.
The “beast” rampages through the potatoes at the Second Night Seder.
During the seder I was invited to share a story… I shared the tale of the Lloyd Street Synagogue’s own “wicked son” – Rabbi Illowy and the lessons we learned from America’s Civil War.
3. Expectations and Audience
I did take the opportunity to visit the Jewish Museum of London. It is a little challenging to find, but worth the effort. We have some elements in common with our London counterpart, including the exhibition of one of the oldest mikveh in our respective countries (well, ours is 1845 and theirs is mid-13th century).
This is the rather subtle entry to the Jewish Museum of London.
The Jewish Museum of London has three exhibit floors. The first level is “what is Judaism?”… objects that explain Jewish rituals and observances. The second level is “the history of Judaism in Britain” and the third level is a changing exhibit gallery. I found it interesting that such a large portion of the total footprint was dedicated to explaining Judaism in general. It seemed to reflect an expectation that a significant portion of their audience was unfamiliar with Jewish practice… an expectation not often reflected in American Jewish museums.
This screen from the computer interactive of Jewish settlements in England tells the story of the Jews of Bristol (home of Mendes Cohen’s mother).
On the second floor there were some interesting display concepts. The tailor shop section of the exhibit included tools partially encased in plexi – visitors could lift the iron or the scissors and feel their weight without risk of injury from sharp edges. There was also a video that blended a historic photo with live actors. The interactive that allowed you to look up dozens of communities in England and find out their Jewish stories was particularly well done. I wouldn’t be surprised if someday you could do this with towns of Maryland at a certain museum in Baltimore.
How heavy were those scissors?
The temporary exhibit in April was on Jewish participation in World War I. I thought it was an excellent treatment of a difficult topic. Naturally, the focus was on the Jews of Britain – but they did a credible job of explaining the participation of the much larger populations of Jews who fought for the Central Powers (Germany and Austria).
London’s oldest mikveh was moved to the museum.
4. York and Memory
We ended our visit to England with a trip to York, a beautiful, walkable small city in the north of the country. It has an incredibly rich history… underneath the soaring Gothic York Minster lie the remains of the original Roman fort at Eboracum. There is also a slightly hokey attraction focused on York’s Viking heritage in town.
York Minster, I believe it is the second largest cathedral in Europe. It stands where Constantine was made Emperor of Rome.
York plays a role in Jewish history as well, though not a happy one. It seems that when Richard the Lionheart ascended to the throne in 1189 a rumor spread that it was the king’s wish to deal with infidels at home before heading on a Crusade against infidels abroad. The small Jewish community of York, numbering about 150, fled the castle keep (a place later reconstructed in stone as Clifford’s Tower). A mob descended on the keep and the Jews inside made the decision to kill themselves by burning down the keep rather than expose themselves to torture, forced conversion and/or death from the mob.
Memories of York were still fresh in my mind when I boarded the plane back to the US. I had bought myself a wonderfully illustrated magazine for the long trip home – The Medieval World, published by National Geographic. Its 127 pages of text and graphics attempted to summarize the major places and events of the thousand year span from 400 to 1400 A.D. Not surprisingly, York made it into the list of great places of the age. The magazine attempted to give a balanced portrayal of the struggle between Christians and Muslims across this millennium. But somewhere over the North Atlantic, I began to notice something was missing: the Jews. Not just missing from the sidebar on York, but from the discussion of Moorish Spain and central Germany… as best as I could tell, missing from all 127 pages!
What struck me was how easy it is to erase a people from history… and how important it is that institutions like the Jewish Museum of London (and the Jewish Museum of Maryland) keep it alive and accessible to the public. I came back from my journey, exhausted, refreshed and ready to go back to work.
A blog post by Executive Director Marvin Pinkert. To read more posts by Marvin, click here.