Processions, Debates and Curbstone Encounters: The Struggle over Kosher Meat in Baltimore, 1897 – 1918 Pt. 5

Posted on March 20th, 2017 by

Article by Avi Y. Decter. Originally published in Generations 2011 – 2012: Jewish Foodways

The boycott of 1910 was one dramatic episode in a twenty-year struggle over kosher meat that engaged meat wholesalers, retail butchers, shochets (ritual slaughterers), the Orthodox rabbinate, and thousands of ordinary Jews, especially in East Baltimore. In the first decades of the twentieth century, conflict over kosher meat was a familiar topic. Today, that contestation is little remembered and poorly documented. However, sufficient evidence survives to give us access to the trajectory and meaning of the protracted struggle over kosher meat. Here is that story.

Part V: The Community Responds

Missed parts 1-4? Start here.

Crowd gathered in front of butcher shop during meat riot, New York, 1910. Courtesy of the George Grantham Bain Collection, Library of Congress.

Crowd gathered in front of butcher shop during meat riot, New York, 1910. Courtesy of the George Grantham Bain Collection, Library of Congress.

Despite the surrender of the kosher butchers to the authority of the Orthodox rabbinate, agitation over the cost of kosher meat continued. The first week of October “several hundred delegates from various Hebrew societies in the city” convened a mass meeting to protest the rabbis’ decision that only locally slaughtered beef could be used by members of the Orthodox congregations to the exclusion of kosher meat shipped in from Chicago. Speakers at the meeting charged the rabbis with “an unwarrantable assumption of rights” that caused inconvenience and hardship to consumers. It was agreed to lodge a formal protest with the Orthodox Federation.[1]

That winter thousands of Jewish and non-Jewish Baltimoreans participated in a national boycott of all meat produced by “the Beef Trust,” both kosher and non-kosher. This national food protest began in Cleveland and spread quickly to other cities from New York to Des Moines. Protesters ranging from trade unions to suffragette organizations urged consumers of dressed beef, lamb, and pork to abstain from eating any meat for thirty to sixty days in an effort to force a drop in meat prices. Meanwhile, Congressional hearings were held in early 1910 to investigate charges that the cost of living was artificially inflated by the “Meat Trust” and others.[2]

Despite the success of the national boycott, kosher meat prices in Baltimore continued to rise. This time the retail butchers declined to boycott the wholesalers of kosher meat.[3] A mass meeting of Jewish housewives “denounced the butchers and wholesalers, whom they declared were in league together…Mrs. Sadie Cohen declared that no relief would be gained unless the butchers were punished. ‘Don’t you believe for one minute that the butchers are forced to raise the price. I say they are not,” said Mrs. Cohen in Yiddish.”[4] In a matter of days the “Kosher Meat War” was in progress.

Continue to Part VI: The “Kosher Meat War” of 1910

Notes:

[1] “Oppose Kosher Meat Compact,” Baltimore Sun, 4 October 1909, p. 11.

[2] “Meat Boycott Spreads,” Baltimore Sun, 22 January 1910, p. 1. “Women Urge the Boycott,” Baltimore Sun, 27 January 1910. “Hasn’t Heard Barons Squeal,” Baltimore Sun, 21 March 1910, p. 14.

[3] “Hasn’t Heard Barons Squeal.”

[4] “Kosher Meat Boycott,” Baltimore American, March 1910.

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A Baltimore Jewish Riot?

Posted on May 25th, 2011 by

One of the most fun parts of my job involves delving into the museum’s archives to research topics related to our exhibitions and publications. Right now, I’m deep into research for a new book on the history of the Baltimore Jewish community, which allows me to pretty much look in any direction I want to. I enjoy uncovering examples of “bad behavior”—let’s face it, it’s just more interesting, especially when the behavior goes against stereotypes of Jews or the official, rather staid version of history that is usually promoted by a community’s leaders (of course, this applies to any community, anywhere). I thought I’d share an interesting story line I came across recently.

A typical raid during Prohibition (from melblancproject.wordpress.com)

It’s well known that Jews were not big fans of Prohibition in the 1920s, but I was still a bit surprised to come across incidents of Jews engaging in spontaneous acts of violence against prohibition agents—in fact, at least twice in a single year. In January 1922, according to the Baltimore Sun, “An attack was made upon the agents and police at the place of Abraham Levine, 140 North Exeter Street.” As the police uncovered “a quart bottle of whisky and 25 barrels of fruit wine,” a sergeant “was struck over the head by an alarm clock thrown by a woman supposed to be Mrs. Levine.” The couple’s twelve-year-old son, “in a towering rage,” told the officers that “if he had a pistol he would shoot him.” More than 1,000 people gathered to witness the raid in the Jewish immigrant neighborhood of East Baltimore, and their sympathies were not with the police.

The sentiment in Fells Point (from prohibitionbaltimore.blogspot.com)

The following June, in an article headlined “Crowd Threatens To Beat ‘Dry’ Agent,” the Sun reported what happened when the car of a prohibition agent named Barton collided with a truck operated by Abraham Lazarowitz of East Fayette Street. “Lazarowitz, it is alleged, jumped from the truck and struck Barton in the face. Barton drew a blackjack.” When bystanders learned that Barton was a prohibition agent, some of them “offered to help beat him.” The arrival of reinforcements saved Barton from the angry mob, and Lazarowitz was arrested. When his lawyer asked the judge to reduce his bail, the judge refused. “I am going to do my duty in stopping unprovoked attacks against Government officers, even if they are prohibition agents.”

Two gents in Prohibition-era Baltimore. JMM 1989.211.6.23

Apparently prohibition agents were universally unpopular, and Jews were far from the only ones spoiling for a fight. The Lazarowitz incident was only the “latest in a series of attacks” against agents, the first occurring during the raid of an Irish saloon.

Baltimore Jewish Times ad for Champagne (ginger ale, that is), 1928.

Next month… Baltimore Jewish juvenile delinquents, perhaps, or champion golfers…

 

A blog post by Research Historian Deb Weiner.

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