Posted on December 13th, 2012 by Jennifer
Once before I posted two related collections together and here I'm going to do it again. ?We have two manuscript collections related to Oheb Shalom congregation. ?Here's a little of its history, our holdings, and some pictures, too.
Oheb Shalom on Hanover Street after the rebuilding, n.d. 1985.114.1
Temple Oheb Shalom (Baltimore, Md.)
Collection, n.d., 1819-1977
?The Jewish Museum of Maryland
ACCESS AND PROVENANCE??
The Temple Oheb Shalom Collection was donated to the Jewish Museum of Maryland by Temple Oheb Shalom in 2004 as accession 2004.97.? The collection had previously been on the premises as loans L1988.11 and L2002.48.? The collection was arranged by Bernie Raynor and Jerry Frankle in 2006 and the finding aid was written by Erin Titter.
Access to the collection is unrestricted and is available to researchers at the Jewish Museum of Maryland.? Researchers must obtain the written permission of the Jewish Museum of Maryland before publishing quotations from materials in the collection.? Papers may be copied in accordance with the library?s usual procedures.
(left) Cantor Alois Kaiser and (right) Rabbi Benjamin Szold, taken at the Oheb Shalom Synagogue in 1868. 1989.79.74
Temple Oheb Shalom was founded in 1853 and held its first services on November 25, 1853 in Osceola Hall at the northeast corner of Gay and Lexington Streets inBaltimore.? In 1858, the congregation purchased the old Fifth Presbyterian Church onSouth Hanover Streetbetween Pratt and Lombard Streets, remodeled the building, and dedicated it as the new synagogue on August 13, 1858.? In these early years of its existence, the congregation was called the Fourth Synagogue, the Hanover Street Synagogue, or the German Congregation.
Salomon Landsberg served as the congregation?s spiritual leader from 1856-1857, but he was not an ordained rabbi.? In 1859, Benjamin Szold became the first ordained rabbi of the congregation and he served in that capacity until 1892.? In 1870, the Hanover Street building underwent reconstruction, during which time the congregation worshipped at the New Assembly Rooms at Lombard and Hanover Streets.
On September 3, 1892, Rabbi William Rosenau preached his first sermon as the new leader of Temple Oheb Shalom.? In June of 1892 a cornerstone was laid for a new temple at the corner of Eutaw PlaceandLanvale Street, which was known as the Eutaw Place Temple.? Designed by architect Joseph Evans Sperry, the temple was formally dedicated on September 8, 1893.? A Temple Center adjacent to the Eutaw Place Temple opened in February 1923.
Rabbi Szold died while on vacation in Berkeley Springs, West Virginiain 1903 and later that year, the congregation celebrated the 50th anniversary of the congregation and the 40th anniversary of Rev. Alois Kaiser?s service as cantor was celebrated in 1906.? A new cantor, Rev. Jacob Schuman was installed in September 1908.
In 1959, ground was broken for a new Templeon Park Heights Avenueon the former estate of Moses S. and Samuel M. Hecht.? The new Temple was dedicated on September 16, 1960 after eight weeks of farewell ceremonies for the Eutaw Place Temple.? The Eutaw Place Temple was sold to the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons.
Rabbi Abraham D. Shaw became an assistant rabbi for the congregation in 1936, and was promoted to Senior Rabbi in 1940.? He served until 1976 when Rabbi Donald Berlin became rabbi.? He served as senior rabbi until 1999.? Rabbi Daniel Feder became the assistant rabbi in 1994 and in 1999, Rabbi Steven M. Fink succeeded Rabbi Berlinas Senior Rabbi and Rabbi Feder left to become rabbi at Congregation Keneseth Israel in Allentown, Pennsylvania and Rabbi Eric B. Stark became the new assistant rabbi.
Temple Oheb Shalom is an active congregation and is still located on Park Heights Avenue.? For more information about the congregation, please see Synagogues, Temples and Congregations of Maryland, 1830-1990 by Earl Pruce as well as his addendum covering the years 1991-2002.
Eutaw Place looking south toward Oheb Shalom, n.d. Courtesy of Dennis B. Myers. 1985.112.1
SCOPE AND CONTENT
The Temple Oheb Shalom Collection contains the records of the Templeas well as the papers of clergy and other members of the congregation.? Records include financial ledgers, marriage certificates, information about several buildings owned and used by the congregation, membership information, board of trustees minutes, the religious school, the Brotherhood and other congregational groups, evidence of interactions with outside organizations, and issues of Temple Topics, the congregations newsletter.
The Collection is divided into the following twenty series:? Series I.? Anniversaries, 1903-1978 ; Series II.? Annual Meetings, 1853-1970 ; Series III.? Board of Trustees, 1867-1971 ; Series IV.? Books, n.d., 1826-1883 ; Series V.? Buildings, n.d., 1890-1974 ; Series VI.? Cemetery, n.d., 1863-1934 ; Series VII.? Clergy, n.d., 1859-1977 ; Series VIII.? Correspondence, n.d., 1870-1971 ; Series IX.? Financial, 1853, 1893-1927, 1960-1961; Series X.? Groups, n.d, 1873-1995 ; Series XI.? History, n.d., 1819, 1895-1974 ; Series XII.? Insurance Appraisals, 1940-1944 ; Series XIII.? Marriages, n.d., 1859-1944 ; Series XIV.? Membership, n.d., 1790-1975 ; Series XV.? Memorials, n.d., 1862-1957 ; Series XVI.? Outside Organizations, n.d., 1871-1973 ; Series XVII.? Religious School, n.d., 1873-1981 ; Series XVIII.? Religious Services, n.d., 1910-1972 ; Series XIX.? Temple Topics, 1928-1966, 1978 ; and Series XX.? Photographs.
Series I.? Anniversaries, 1903-1978 contains programs, scrapbooks, and correspondence related to the 50th, 60th, 75th, 83rd, 85th, 90th, 100th, 116th, 120th and 125th anniversaries of the congregation.? Materials are organized chronologically beginning with the earliest material.
Series II.? Annual Meetings, 1853-1970 contains minutes from early annual meetings, the reports of the congregation?s president, a testimonial to Rabbi Rosenau given during the 1937 annual meeting, and programs and invitations to several meetings.? Materials are organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series III.? Board of Trustees, 1853-1971 contains minutes from board of trustees meetings from 1853-1960, an agenda from a 1971 meeting, a manual for board members, and an undated meeting report.? Series is organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series IV.? Books, n.d., 1826-1883 contains several boxes of prayer books and religious texts, in German and English, including a Sunday School text book compiled by Rabbi Szold in 1873 and the complete, translated works of Flavius Josephus give to the temple in honor of the 85th birthday of Beulah Gutman.? Books are in boxes according to size and are not organized in any specific manner.
Series V.? Buildings, n.d., 1890-1974 contains information about the two buildings used by the congregation:?Eutaw Place Temple and theParkHeightsTemple.? Materials about theEutaw Place temple include several newspaper accounts of the opening of the temple in 1893 from various newspapers, etchings, information about the laying of the cornerstone, rededication programs, documents of sale of the Eutaw Place andLanvale Street properties, and a set of mounted postcards depicting various rooms of the temple.? The materials about the Park Heights Temple include blueprints of the property, construction plans, dedication materials, information about the laying of the cornerstone, and a lawsuit filed against the congregation by the Club Manor apartment building.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.
Snapshot by Menasha Katz of Oheb Shalom at the corner of Eutaw Place and Lanvale. 1987.137.35
Series VI.? Cemetery, n.d., 1863-1934 contains cemetery committee meeting minutes, correspondence and perpetual care certificates, and ledgers with lot information and payments.? The series is organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series VII.? Clergy, n.d., 1859-1977 contains materials about rabbis and cantors who served at Temple Oheb Shalom.? Included are materials by and about Rabbi Rosenau, Rabbi Shaw, and Rabbi Szold as well as Cantor Alois Kaiser.? Folders are organized alphabetically by last name of the clergymen.
Series VIII.? Correspondence, n.d., 1870-1971 contains correspondence organized chronologically.? General, undated correspondence appears first followed in order from the earliest to most recent correspondence.
Series IX.? Financial, 1853, 1893-1927, 1960-1961 contains a 1909 budget, General Fund balance sheets from 1960-1961, receipts from 1901-1903, a copy of an 1893 loan, and reports from the finance committee.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series X.? Groups, n.d., 1873-1995 contains information about the temple brotherhood and sisterhood, the choir committee, long range planning committee, the divine services committee, and the cantors committee among others.? Of particular interest in the choir committee correspondence is evidence of an argument between the choir and the board regarding the choir leadership and in the divine services committee folder is an 1893 appeal to members to refrain from talking during services.? The folders are organized alphabetically by the name of the group involved.
Series XI.? History, n.d., 1819, 1895-1974 contains the articles of incorporation and by-laws as rewritten in 1905 and 1929, speeches and essays about the role of Oheb Shalom during the Civil War and German immigration in the 19th century, congregational histories, a scrapbook of newspaper clippings, and a copy of the Jew Bill debates, 1819.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series XII.? Insurance Appraisals, 1940-1944 contains three appraisals of the Temple buildings.? The 1940 appraisals also contains photographs of the buildings.? Folders are organized chronologically from earliest to latest.
Series XIII.? Marriages, n.d., 1859-1944 contains marriage certificates, a ketubah from the wedding of Sarah Stein and Solomon Hecht, marriage licenses from 1859-1944, a compiled list of marriages performed, and ledgers containing lists of marriages performed by Rabbis Rosenau, Shaw and Szold.? Of particular interest is a folder of wedding invitations collected by the congregation.? The invitations are undated (likely from the late 19th and early 20th centuries), but do contain names of individuals being married as well as their family members.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.? Folders of marriage licenses are organized chronologically, with the earliest licenses appearing first.
Series XIV.? Membership, n.d., 1790-1975 contains information about becoming a member of the congregation and membership lists, but primarily contains information about various members of the congregation.? Included is information about the Blaustein family, the Brunn family, Jonas Friedenwald, Yale Gordon, Adolph Gutman, Sophie Hechinger, Bennard Perlman, Gilbert Sandler, Henry Sonneborn, Isaac Straus, Bertha, Henrietta, Johanna, Sara, and Sophie Szold, and the Van Leer family.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.? Folders about individual members or families are organized under the heading Members, and are alphabetical by last name.
Series XV.? Memorials, n.d., 1862-1957 contains memorial offering booklets, memorial books, a blank resolution form to be filled in by the board upon the death of a member, and a list of funerals officiated by Rabbi Rosenau.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series XVI.? Outside Organizations, n.d., 1871-1973 contains material about other local and national organizations.? Included is information about other congregations such as Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, and Har Sinai, the Jewish Community Center, the National Association of Temple Administrators, the Jewish Congregations of Baltimore, the Council of Jewish Women,HebrewUnionCollege, the Hebrew Ladies? Sewing Society, and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.? Included in this series of note are the handwritten articles of incorporation of the Hebrew Free Burial Society and an 1871 letter asking for all ?Israelites? to meet at Temple Oheb Shalom to discuss the formation of an Orphan Asylum inBaltimore.? Folders are organized alphabetically by the name of the organization.
Confirmation class at Oheb Shalom. Hattie Tannebaum, is seated at right of Rabbi William Rosenau, 1900. Courtesy of Morton T. Blumberg. 1991.48.1
Series XVII.? Religious School, n.d., 1873-1981 contains a record of bar mitzvahs, correspondence, class rosters including the 1891-92 class taught by Henrietta Szold, a catalog of library books at the religious school library, a copy of the 1915 school newspaper, a list of honor roll students, reports to the board of school commissioners, board of commissioners meeting minutes, and invitations and programs to confirmation exercises.? Folders are organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series XVIII.? Religious Services, n.d., 1910-1972 contains bulletins from services, calendars of events, a photocopy of an 1858 article in the Occident protesting the installation of an organ for use during services at theTemple, and a bulletin for a prayer service for peace in 1969 as part of a national anti-war campaign.? Series is organized alphabetically by folder title.
Series XIX.? Temple Topics, 1928-1966, 1978 contains issues of the congregational newsletter Temple Topics.? Issues are organized chronologically beginning with the earliest issues.? It is a complete accounting of issues from 1928-1966 and the year 1978.
Series XX.? Photos contains photographs collected by the congregation.? Photographs will be individually cataloged in the JMM database.
Oheb Shalom Congregation
Collection, n.d., 1865-1986
??The Jewish Museum of Maryland
Polaroid of the exterior of Oheb Shalom, c. 1980. Photograph by Paul Schlossberg. 1984.24.40
ACCESS AND PROVENANCE
The Oheb Shalom Congregation Collection was donated to the Jewish Museum of Maryland in 1984, 1989, 1990, and 1991 as accessions 1984.125, 1989.20, 1989.45, 1990.89, 1990.191, 1991.35, by Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Trupp, Mrs. Stanley Greenebaum, Calman A Levin, Rose Weiss, Janice K. Friedman and in 1988, 1991 and 1992 as accession 1988.216, 1991.118 and 1992.51 found in the collection of the Jewish Museum of Maryland. The collection was processed at an unknown date and a finding aid was written by Sidney Rankin in 2012.
Temple Oheb Shalom Sunday School class, May 19, 1931. Partial list of people in photograph, although none are positively identified: Albert Lowenson, Ros Michaelson, Irving Oberfelder, Dorothy Stephany Otenheimer, Alice Leitz, Joseph Wiesenfeld; Francis Scott Key Monument in background. Courtesy of Joseph Wiesenfeld. 1999.57.1
SCOPE AND CONTENT
The Oheb Shalom Congregation Collection consists of a small collection of documents primarily related to the early history of the congregation. The collection is divided into two series.? Series I: Early History, 1899-1938 contains articles of incorporation, early correspondence and histories of the congregation.? Series II: Congregation activities, 1865-1986 contains programs, class materials, letters, pew deeds, prayer cards, etc. related to confirmation, the sisterhood, Benjamin Szold, etc.
Posted on November 8th, 2012 by Jennifer
Today is a great day!
The Jewish Museum of Maryland has been collection synagogue bulletins for years as a resource for staff and researchers, but until today we didn't have a good way to get out the information about this collection.? We?ve had these bulletins, but it took a dedicated intern to organize 26 linear feet of material and create a detailed list of the congregations and bulletins.? This took some time but today the process was completed! This blog contains an abbreviated version of that list (which can also be found in our online collections database).? If you?re interested in more detail about which dates are included in this collection contact the archivist.
Synagogue & Congregation Bulletins of Maryland
The Jewish Museum of Maryland
SCOPE AND CONTENT
This active collection consists primarily of Maryland synagogue and congregation bulletins, newsletters, leaflets, etc. The bulletins and newsletters are weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly, and contain information about each synagogue?s and congregation?s announcements, discourses, workings, and information about each synagogue or congregation. Some of the synagogues and congregations included registries or other materials that are marked in the inventory. This is not a complete collection of all synagogues and congregations in Maryland, and not all of the bulletins are a complete run. The files are organized in alphabetical order by name of congregation, and the bulletins are organized chronologically.
Adat Chaim (Reisterstown) — May 1994 through November 2007
Agudath Israel of Baltimore (Baltimore) [The Lasson Agudah Center] — n.d, Volumes 137, 139, 143, 145-148, 150, 152, 160
Am Kolel (Rockville) –Aug 2003 through April 2005
Anshe Emunah-Aitz Chaim Congregation (Baltimore) [Liberty Jewish Center] — Apr 1963
Baltimore Hebrew Congregation (weekly) — Dec 1962 through September 2006
Baltimore Hebrew Congregation. Courtesy of Paul Schlossberg. 1984.24.2
Baltimore Jewish Cultural Chavurah (Towson) — July 2003 through September 2005
Bat Yam (Ocean City) — April 2002 through March 2011
Temple Bat Yam. Courtesy of Dianne Feldman. 2002.75.1
Beit Tikvah (Mt. Washington) — November 1978, September 1991 to 1997
B'er Chayim (Cumberland) — July 2003 through present
Beth Am (Baltimore) — July 2003 through December 2011
Beth El Congregation (Baltimore) — April 1963 through November 2006
Beth El Congregation (Bethesda) — July 2003 through present
Beth Israel Synagogue (Lexington Park) — March 1997 through March 2009
Beth Israel Congregation (Owings Mills) — April 1996 through present
Beth Israel Synagogue on Liberty Rd. Courtesy of Louis Beck. 1987.173.60
Beth Jacob Congregation (Baltimore) [weekly] — December 1961 through December 2005
Beth Shalom (Columbia) — July 2003 through March 2004
Beth Sholom Synagogue (Frederick) — July 1995 through December 2010
Beth Sholom (Potomac) — November 2003 through January 2009
Beth Tfiloh Syngagoue (Baltimore) — June 1962 through Present
Beth Tfiloh pre-school class of Mrs. Eve Marks and Mrs. Silverstein, Baltimore, December 1960. Courtesy of Eve Marks. 1995.170.1
Bethesda Jewish Congregation — November 2003
B'nai Abraham (Hagerstown) — July 2003 through March 2008
Early B'nai Abraham congregation location. 1987.137.3
B'nai Israel (Rockville) — September 2005
B'nai Shalom of Olney — September 2003 through December 2004
B'nai Tzedek (Potomac) [Jewish Congregation of Suburban MD Inc.] — January 1997 through present
Bolton Street Synagogue (Baltimore) — November 1989 through October 2010
Calah Congregation (Columbia) — January 2004 through June 2010
Chestertown Havurah — January 2004 through May 2007
Chizuk Amuno Congregation (Baltimore) — February 1956 through present
Congregation Har Shalom (Potomac) — June 2003 through present
Columbia Jewish Congregation (Columbia) — July 2003 through Sept 2004
Congregation Or Chadash (Germantown/ Damascus) — October 2003 through present
Gaithersburg Hebrew Congregation (Gaithersburg) — August 1971 through March 1973
Har Sinai Congregation (Baltimore) — May 1963 through February 2009
Jewish Community Center of Prince George County, Inc.? (Greenbelt) — July 2003 through August 2006
Kneseth Israel (Annapolis) — June 1998 through December 2001
Kneseth Israel, Annapolis, c. 1995. Courtesy of Eric Goldstein. 2001.113.22
Kol Ami (Annapolis) — August 1997 through May 2005
Nevy Shalom (Bowie) — January 2000 through August 2005
Ner Tamid Greeenspring Valley Spring Synagogue (Baltimore) — July 2003 through August 2007
Ohr Kodesh (Chevy Chase) — March 1997 through present
Oseh Shalom (Laurel) — July 2003 through May 2010
Shaarei Zion (Baltimore) — September 1961 through June 2010
Shaarei Zion at Park Heights Avenue and Hillsdale Road, n.d. 1987.137.38
Shearith Israel (Baltimore) — 1992, 2003 through present
Shearith Israel Synagogue at Park Heights Avenue and Glen Avenue. 1987.137.15Temple Emanuel, c. 1980. Courtesy of Paul Schlossberg
Shomrei Emunah (Baltimore) — July 2003 through January 2004
Temple Beth Ami (Rockville) — October 2003 through March 2009
Temple Emanuel (Baltimore) (weekly) — March 1963 through October 1968
Temple Emanuel/ Kol Kore (Kensington) — January 2004 through March 2009
Temple Emanuel (Reisterstown) — January through December 2003
Temple Isaiah (Columbia) — August 2003 through March 2007
Temple Oheb Shalom — December 1961 through present
Temple Shalom (Chevy Chase) — July 2003 through September 2006
Temple Solel (Bowie) — April 1998 through present
Tikvat Israel Congregation (Rockville) — July 2003 through June 2012
Winands Road Synagogue Center (Randallstown) — July 2003 through present
Winands Road Synagogue Center, c. 1980. Courtesy of Paul Schlossberg. 1994.24.33
Young Israel of White Oak (Silver Spring) — through present
Posted on December 29th, 2011 by Jennifer
Over the fifty years that the Jewish Museum of Maryland has been in existence we have received a large number of materials related to Benjamin Szold and his descendents, which have been organized into three manuscript collections. Two of those collections (MS 37 and MS 38 the Henrietta Szold and Bertha Szold Levin Papers) are completely processed with finding aids and a third (MS 17 the Levin Family Papers) is having new materials added to it, and should be complete within a few weeks. The Szold family is pretty amazing – their activities had an impact, not only onBaltimoreJewish history, but on world Jewish history. My favorite part of these collections is the amazing number of letters. Each collection is full of letters written between siblings, parents and children, grandparents and grandchildren, and friends and acquaintances.
Cantor Alois Kaiser (left) and Rabbi Benjamin Szold (right), taken at the Oheb Shalom Synagogue in 1868. 1989.79.74
Rabbi Benjamin Szold (1829-1902)
Papers, n.d., 1846-1940
Jewish Museum of Maryland
ACCESS AND PROVENANCE
The Rabbi Benjamin Szold Papers were donated to the museum as accession 2004.076. The collection was reprocessed by Rebecca Levitan in the summer of 2007.
Access to the collection is partially restricted. Photocopied materials in the collection either do not belong to the Jewish Museum of Maryland, or have uncertain title. Researchers must obtain the written permission of the Jewish Museum of Maryland before publishing quotations from materials in the collection. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library’s usual procedures.
Parlor in the Szold house, c. 1899.
Benjamin Szold was born in Nemiskert, Hungaryon November 15, 1829. He was the son of Chaile and Boruch Szold but was raised by his uncles after the deaths of his parents. He moved to Pressburg, Hungary to study at the Yeshiva. He later studied and worked in Vienna during the Revolution of 1848. He also tutored students while living and studying in Breslau (now Poland). On August 10, 1959 Benjamin married Sophia (Sophie) Schaar and the two moved to Baltimore, Maryland.
Sophie Szold. 1989.79.54
Szold came to the United States to take a job as Rabbi at Oheb Shalom Synagogue in Baltimore and rose to prominence in the coming years. He unsuccessfully lobbied President Abraham Lincoln to commute the execution order of a Jewish soldier during the American Civil War. He also served with the Baltimore Association for the Education and Moral Improvement of the Colored People at the war’s end.
Oheb Shalom on Hanover Street after the rebuilding, n.d. 1985.114.1
Rabbi Szold modernized the practices of his congregation. He eventually delivered sermons in English rather than German, he eliminated the requirement for head coverings in the synagogue, and he introduced family pews. Szold’s writings also brought fame to his tenure. His interpretation of The Book of Job, published in 1886, was studied throughout the United States and Europe.
Temple Oheb Shalom on Eutaw Place, n.d. 19184.108.40.206
Benjamin and Sophie had five daughters. Henrietta was born on December 21, 1860 (died 1945), followed by Estella and Rebecca who died in infancy, Rachel born in November of 1865 (died 1926), Sara/Sadie on February 14, 1868 (died 1893), Johanna born in 1871 (died 1875), Bertha born in 1873 (died 1958), and Adele born in 1876 (died 1940). Henrietta Szold, his first daughter, later achieved fame as a prominent Zionist and founder of the Youth Aliyah & Hadassah movements. Rabbi Benjamin Szold died in Berkeley Springs,WV on July 31, 1902.
Szold Family composite photograph. 1989.79.76
SCOPE AND CONTENT
The Rabbi Benjamin Szold Papers consists of five series: Series I. Correspondence, Series II. Sermons & Speeches, Series III. Newspaper Clippings, Series IV. Sophie Szold Papers, and Series V. Miscellaneous Articles. Some of the papers in the collection are photocopies of documents belonging to other institutions. Series I. Correspondence are between Rabbi Szold and other theologians, as well as his family. The letters are in various languages. He wrote in Hungarian, German, Yiddish and English. Series II. Sermons & Speeches are from throughout Rabbi Szold’s career in Europe and the United States. Series III. Newspaper Clippings are from both the United States and Europe. The Clippings are printed in a variety of languages. Series IV. Sophie Szold Papers include letters, the majority of which were written by her daughter Bertha Szold during her time at Bryn Mawr College to Sophie and the rest of the family. Other letters include siblings and in-laws writing to Sophie and Ben from Germany, and a few letters written by Sophie to various people. The folder titles reflect descriptions of the majority of the correspondence within although individual letters from other family and friends might be included. The collection includes other materials related to Sophie’s life and estate. Although the letters are separated by year they are not organized chronologically within the folders. Some of the letters written in German have been translated or synopsized. Series V: Miscellaneous Articles consists of articles related to Zionism, etc., but mostly from after the death of Benjamin Szold.
Benjamin Szold, c.1899. 19220.127.116.11a