Family Fare: Baltimore Jewish Food Businesses Side Bar 4

Posted on June 7th, 2017 by

Article by Jennifer Vess. Originally published in Generations 2011 – 2012: Jewish Foodways

Side Bar: Gordon Salganik: “People in Washington didn’t know what to do with a brisket”

Missed the beginning? Start here.

Polish women making sausage at Wolf Salganik & Sons, c. 1930. JMM 2004.27.4

Polish women making sausage at Wolf Salganik & Sons, c. 1930. JMM 2004.27.4

“My grandfather started with a butcher shop…on the corner of Lombard and Exeter.  It was a retail butcher shop…[and] they lived above the store…. Then a company was formed….[named] Consolidated Beef and Provision Company, also known as CeeBee…. [The property ran] down Lombard street towards Wartzman’s bakery and then along, up Exeter Street to the middle of the block.  Initially, I believe…their property [was] 104, 106 South Exeter Street where the first plant was built, loading right from the street….  The first floor was where they handled the beef.  The second floor was where they handled processing, manufacturing of all kinds of meat products – bolognas, sausage, meatloafs, curing hams.  Course the curing was done in the basement.  And on the third floor is where another area where the…manufacturing of the meat products took place…[and] where they smoked the meats.

I, as a kid, went in there on Saturdays and worked around the plant…. The building expanded [and] my grandfather eventually gave up the butcher shop… My grandfather…would go out to the stockyards and buy the cattle.  And, of course the cattle were killed right there…off of Brunswick Street and Wilkens Avenue.  Cattle were brought in from the country and sold on the spot there, and around the stock yards you had several abattoirs…and…the cow would be led into one of their plants and that’s where they slaughtered the cow, and my grandfather would have some slaughtered Kosher, some were un-Kosher….  Course then it was trucked into the plant at Lombard and Exeter, and that’s where they operated and sold the beef from.

My Uncle Lewis was more or less the one in charge of the beef and the beef sales….  My Uncle Isadore took care of the manufacturing for all the meat products.  And I suppose it was 1936 or ‘37 approximately that my Uncle Jerome came into the business.  He graduated from the University of Maryland College Park and he took over responsibilities in the office…. My dad Maurice was a salesmen and sold to some accounts in Baltimore, but many accounts in Washington.  Traveled over to Washington just about every day.  And one of the things he would do in Washington would be to visit all the meat houses in Washington and purchase plates [a cut of meat] and briskets.  In those days the people in Washington didn’t know what to do with a brisket or a plate.  And they were in excess over there, anxious to get rid of them.  And the trucks…would deliver orders to various stores in Washington and would pick up plates and briskets to carry back so they had a load going over and a load coming back.

Polish women making sausage casing at Wolf Salganik & Sons, c. 1930. JMM 2004.27.2

Polish women making sausage casing at Wolf Salganik & Sons, c. 1930. JMM 2004.27.2

I’m not sure, but I think…my Uncle Isadore [was]…one of the first ones to cure corned beef in the city. …The briskets…were cured, put in sweet pickle and processed …for…corned beef.  The plates…were boned and then…rolled – pastrami…. I remember my uncle going into various loaves – meatloaves …pepper loaves and things, just processing a loaf.  Well, it’s a bologna, glorified bologna with various ingredients added to it and cured in a different way or smoked in a different way, cooked in a different way.  And they cooked hams, smoked hams, cured bacon and…smoked bacon.  And we sliced the bacon and sold it to many of the stores in the city….Consolidated… was one of the biggest suppliers of meat products…Course all this was processed right there on Lombard and Exeter Street.”

~Excerpted from Oral History 318, Gordon Salganik, n.d.

~The End~

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Family Fare: Baltimore Jewish Food Businesses Part 6

Posted on May 24th, 2017 by

Article by Jennifer Vess. Originally published in Generations 2011 – 2012: Jewish Foodways

Part VI: Marketing and Expansion: “We have to expand whether we want to or not.”[1]

Miss parts 1-5? Start here.

Tulkoff's Horseradish Advertisement, c. 1960s. JMM 1998.18.14

Tulkoff’s Horseradish Advertisement, c. 1960s. JMM 1998.18.14

In the time of the neighborhood deli and corner grocery store, proximity and word of mouth brought in business to the small shops.  People walked to the closest bakery or learned from their friends if a better confectionary might be a few blocks further away.  But by the early twentieth century, advertising and marketing became necessary for survival and particularly for growth.  As more and more people owned cars and installed refrigerators, going long distances to stock up on food became more feasible.  Sticking close to home wasn’t really necessary any more, opening up far more options for consumers.  For owners who wanted to stay in business or for those who wanted to expand, advertising and marketing became crucial.

Advertising came in many forms.  Large businesses with a big workforce and money to invest could buy ads of varying sizes in the local newspapers.  The Jewish owned businesses in Baltimore reached out to the Jewish community through the Baltimore Jewish Times.  Smaller businesses gave money in return for being featured in programs for local events, such as the Pioneer Club dance of 1937.  Owners could show their support for the community as well as promote themselves.  Businesses might also distribute fliers with their specials, or cover Baltimore with signs.

Name recognition has always been important to businesses.  Turn of the century dairies used bottles imprinted with their names and logos.  The small shops that became big businesses in Baltimore such as Hendlers Creamery, Silbers Bakery, and Tulkoff’s Horseradish Products Company, put their name and logo on product labels, signs, cake tins, and bags.

Pint bottle from Snesil Dairy. Courtesy of Marion Snesil. JMM 1984.16.1

Pint bottle from Snesil Dairy. Courtesy of Marion Snesil. JMM 1984.16.1

Aside from ads, packaging, and slogans, businesses big and small used promotional techniques to set themselves apart from their competitors and expand their customer base.  Paul Wartzman, whose family owned Wartzman’s bakery once commented that, “Stone’s was the most successful bakery. They catered to a lot of non-Jews because they came out with a gimmick: hot rolls every half hour. I’ll never forget that. They killed all the other bakers. People would rush in for their hot rolls every half hour.”[2]  Nates and Leon’s deli meanwhile drew in the crowds by offering something no one else did – round the clock service.  Twenty-four hours a day customers could find a sandwich.  This was particularly attractive to the people leaving nightclubs in the early hours of the morning.[3] Stones Bakery and Nates and Leon’s had more than just gimmicks in common – they both catered to the broader Baltimore community, expanding beyond the local Jewish residents.  Expansion was a key step in the survival of Jewish food businesses.

As marketing brought in new customers some small businesses outgrew their first floor shops.  Wolf Salganik began as a butcher in a single building with his home on the second floor, but by the 1930s he and his sons had taken over multiple buildings where they carried out their wholesale meat processing on three floors.[4]  Harry Tulkoff followed a similar pattern, starting out in a small grocery store in the 1920s then buying up several, connected buildings to convert into a single processing plant on Lombard Street before eventually moving out to their current larger location.  Hendlers Creamery, Saval Foods Corporation, Silber’s bakery, Baltimore Spice, and others did likewise.  Some of these businesses grew and sold out to other corporations, but others still exist today, still running and still growing and still in the family.

Early Saval Foods location. JMM CP 21.2011.8

Early Saval Foods location. JMM CP 21.2011.8

Expansion could mean creating an entirely new business.  The corner grocery store was the forerunner of the modern supermarket, but supermarkets are more than just big grocery stores – they are a new entity that moved away from early twentieth century specialization to generalization.  Baltimore saw its first supermarkets before World War II.  Businesses like Food Fair (a national supermarket chain that started in the late 1920s) and the local, Jewish-owned Food-O-Rama and Shreiber’s supermarket changed how families shopped. “The Shreiber Brothers did the impossible. They made a store where you had not just meats, but you had groceries. Then they brought in their own baker.  By adding on they had the supermarket. It [may have been] the first supermarket in the entire country.”[5]  Today, in addition to regional and nationwide chains Baltimore has local supermarkets such as Eddies, and Seven Mile Market, the latter not just Jewish owned but also aimed at the Jewish community.

Schreiber’s Grocery, 1959. JMM 1998.16.2

Schreiber’s Grocery, 1959. JMM 1998.16.2

Impact and Legacy

The stories of family-owned Jewish food businesses have not stopped being created.  Many small shops closed, leaving behind only the fond memories of scents and tastes that can never be duplicated.  Other businesses that began long ago still exist today run by third or fourth generation owners providing the old standards while staying close to their historical roots.  And new businesses continued to open.

Restaurants, bakeries, and delis continue to open, owned and operated by Jewish men and women – often to serve the Jewish community.  Local entrepreneurs (or transplants from elsewhere in the US) establish new businesses, and so do recent immigrants.  Families from places like Israel, Iran and Russia arrive in Baltimore and start their own restaurants or bakeries or delis, using their knowledge and skills of food from their former homes to support their families.  Jewish family food businesses have long been a part of the local economy, and though the world is very different today than it was a hundred years ago, the stories of living and eating and family fare remain constant.

Continue to Sidebar One: The Bluefeld Catering Story:People came from all around”

Notes:

[1] Howard Saval, 1982 Baltimore Sun

[2] Paul Wartzman interview, June 5, 2006, OH 686, JMM.

[3] Mina Shavitz interview, March 33, 3002, OH 648, JMM.

[4] Gordon Salganik interview, n.d., OH 318, JMM.

[5] Louis and Philip Bluefeld interview, August 6, 1979, OH 75, JMM.

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